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Table 4 Indicators approved and level of agreement achieved, in each area of concern and dimension

From: Indicators for evaluating European population health: a Delphi selection process

Dimension Indicator Aggregated responses (%) Pi Group majority decision rule
SD D NAD A SA
Economic and social environment
 Employment Unemployment rate (%) 1.4 1.4 2.8 30.6 63.9 0.50 A1-A
Youth unemployment rate (%) 0.0 3.0 9.0 49.3 38.8 0.39 A2-B
Long-term unemployment rate (%) 1.4 4.2 4.2 25.0 65.3 0.49 A1-A
 Income & living conditions Disposable income of private households per capita (€) 0.0 3.0 11.9 50.7 34.3 0.38 A2-B
People at risk of poverty or social exclusion (%) 1.4 1.4 4.2 20.8 72.2 0.56 A1-A
Severe material deprivation rate (%) 2.8 2.8 4.2 38.9 51.4 0.41 A1-A
Disposable income ratio - S80/S20 1.5 4.5 16.4 34.3 43.3 0.32 A2-B
 Social protection Expenditure on care for elderly (% of GDP) 0.0 9.0 14.9 47.8 28.4 0.33 A2-B
 Education Population aged 25–64 with lower secondary education attainment (%) 0.0 14.9 7.5 46.3 31.3 0.33 A2-B
Population aged 25–64 with upper secondary or tertiary education attainment (%) 0.0 9.0 10.4 52.2 28.4 0.36 A2-B
Early leavers from education and training (%) 0.0 9.0 13.4 41.8 35.8 0.32 A2-B
 Security Population who reported crime, violence or vandalism in the area of residence (%) 0.0 6.0 7.5 50.7 35.8 0.39 A2-B
Demographic change
 Migration Immigrants at risk of poverty or social exclusion - born in EU28 countries, excluding the reporting country (%) 1.49 4.5 7.5 61.2 25.4 0.44 A2-B
Immigrants at risk of poverty or social exclusion - born in non EU28 countries (%) 0 1.5 7.5 58.2 32.8 0.44 A2-B
 Ageing At risk of poverty rate of older people - aged 65 years or over (%) 0 1.5 4.5 50.7 43.3 0.44 A2-B
Ageing index 0 6 7.5 40.3 46.3 0.38 A2-B
Age dependency ratio 0 7.5 12 50.7 29.9 0.36 A2-B
Lifestyle & health behaviours
 Lifestyle and health behaviours Adults who are obese (%) 0.0 1.4 1.4 25.0 72.2 0.58 A1-A
Regular daily smokers in the population - aged 15 and over (%) 2.8 4.2 4.2 22.2 66.7 0.49 A1-A
Daily smokers - aged 15 and over (%) 2.8 6.9 5.6 27.8 56.9 0.40 A1-A
Number of cigarettes smoked per day - daily smokers (No.) 0 6 4.5 38.8 50.7 0.40 A2-A
Pure alcohol consumption - aged 15 and over (Liters per capita) 0.0 0.0 4.2 43.1 52.8 0.46 A1-A
Population engaged in vigorous or moderate physical activity on 2 or more days a week (%) 0 0 4.5 50.7 44.8 0.45 A2-B
Average amount of fruits and vegetables available per person per year (Kg per person) 0 0 12 55.2 32.8 0.42 A2-B
Live births by mothers under age of 20 (%) 0 4.5 7.5 34.3 53.7 0.41 A2-A
Physical environment
 Pollution Annual mean of the daily PM2.5 concentrations (ug/m3) 0 0 13 34.3 52.2 0.40 A2-A
Annual mean of the daily PM10 concentrations (ug/m3) 0 0 12 37.3 50.7 0.40 A2-A
Transport emissions of air pollutants (%) 7.46 4.5 4.5 58.2 25.4 0.40 A2-B
Population exposed to traffic noise - Lden 55-59db, during day (%) 6.25 3.1 11 73.4 6.25 0.55 A3-B
Population who reported pollution, grime or other environmental problems in the area of residence (%) 2.99 1.5 16 43.3 35.8 0.33 A2-B
Contaminated sites and other land use indicators (hectares) 1.49 1.5 15 47.8 34.3 0.36 A2-B
Built environment
 Housing conditions Average number of rooms per person 1.56 6.3 16 53.1 23.4 0.36 A3-B
Children living in homes with problems of dampness (%) 0 0 9 53.7 37.3 0.43 A2-B
Population living in a dwelling with a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames of floor (%) 0 3 12 28.4 56.7 0.41 A2-A
Households without indoor flushing toilet (%) 0 3 9 31.3 56.7 0.42 A2-A
Households without central heating (%) 0 0 15 23.9 61.2 0.45 A2-A
 Water and sanitation Population connected to public water supply (%) 0 4.5 4.5 49.3 41.8 0.41 A2-B
Drinking water quality: microbiological non-compliance (%) 0 4.5 3 35.8 56.7 0.44 A2-A
Drinking water quality: chemical non-compliance (%) 7.46 4.5 4.5 37.3 46.3 0.35 A2-B
Population connected to wastewater treatment (%) 0 4.5 3 40.3 52.2 0.43 A2-A
 Road safety Injury rate due to road traffic accidents, per 100.000 inhabitants 0 4.5 7.5 40.3 47.8 0.39 A2-B
Victims in road accidents - injured and killed, per 100.000 inhabitants 0 7.5 15 32.8 44.8 0.33 A2-B
Fatality rate due to road traffic accidents, per 1.000 victims 0 6 12 37.3 44.8 0.35 A2-B
Healthcare services
 Healthcare resources Health personnel (general practitioners), per 100.000 inhabitants 1.49 1.5 3 52.2 41.8 0.44 A2-B
Curative care beds, per 100.000 inhabitants 0 9.4 13 57.8 20.3 0.39 A3-B
Long-term care beds in nursing and residential care facilities, per 100.000 inhabitants 1.49 3 18 47.8 29.9 0.34 A2-B
Medical doctors, per 100.000 inhabitants 1.49 3 12 32.8 50.7 0.37 A2-A
Health personnel (nurses and midwives, dentists, pharmacists and physiotherapists), per 100.000 inhabitants 1.49 3 12 35.8 47.8 0.36 A2-B
Medical Technology (e.g. mammography, PET scanners, CT scanners) per 100.000 inhabitants 1.49 4.5 12 50.7 31.3 0.36 A2-B
 Healthcare access Population living to more than 60 min from Urgent Care/Emergency unit (%) 0 6 9 40.3 44.8 0.36 A2-B
 Healthcare utilization Hospital discharges due to diabetes, hypertension and asthma per 100.000 inhabitants 0 3 10 55.2 31.3 0.41 A2-B
 Healthcare expenditure Health care expenditure by all financing agents per inhabitant, in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) 2.99 1.5 10 56.7 28.4 0.41 A2-B
Health care expenditure by private household out-of-pocket expenditure per inhabitant, in PPS 0 0 12 55.2 32.8 0.42 A2-B
Governmental (except social security funds) expenditure in providers of health care in health care per capita, in PPS 1.49 0 12 46.3 40.3 0.38 A2-B
Health outcomes
 Length of life (Mortality) Life expectancy at birth (years) 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.4 74.6 0.62 A1-A
Sex ratio of life expectancy at birth 0 9.4 13 57.8 20.3 0.39 A3-B
Life expectancy at 65 years of age (years) 0.0 0.0 4.2 31.0 64.8 0.51 A1-A
Infant mortality, per 1.000 live births 0.0 2.8 4.2 18.3 74.6 0.59 A1-A
Perinatal mortality, per 1.000 live births 0 3 11 28.8 57.6 0.42 A2-A
Neonatal mortality, per 1.000 live births 0 3 12 28.8 56.1 0.40 A2-A
Premature mortality, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 1.4 9.9 23.9 64.8 0.48 A1-A
Amenable deaths to health, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0 1.5 14 42.4 42.4 0.37 A2-B
Preventable deaths, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 1.4 5.6 42.3 50.7 0.43 A1-A
Deaths related to infectious disease, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0 1.5 4.5 40.9 53 0.44 A2-A
Deaths related to land transport accidents, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 1.52 6.1 11 40.9 40.9 0.34 A2-B
Deaths from diseases of the circulatory system, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 0.0 8.5 33.8 57.7 0.45 A1-A
Deaths from diseases of the respiratory system, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 0.0 5.6 38.0 56.3 0.46 A1-A
Deaths from cancer (malignant neoplasms), SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0 0 3 42.4 54.5 0.47 A2-A
Death due to ischaemic heart disease, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 0.0 4.2 39.4 56.3 0.47 A1-A
Deaths due to cerebrovascular diseases, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 0.0 7.0 36.6 56.3 0.45 A1-A
Deaths due to colorectal cancer, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 0.0 7.0 42.3 50.7 0.43 A1-A
Deaths due to larynx, trachea, bronchus and lung cancer, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 0.0 8.5 40.8 50.7 0.42 A1-A
Deaths due to breast cancer, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 0.0 2.8 7.0 39.4 50.7 0.41 A1-A
Deaths due to prostate cancer, SDR per 100.000 inhabitants 1.52 6.1 4.5 39.4 48.5 0.39 A2-B
 Quality of life (Morbidity) People who reported having a long-standing illness or health problem (%) 0 3 6.1 37.9 53 0.42 A2-A
Self-perceived health less than good (%) 0 7.6 14 31.8 47 0.34 A2-B
Self-reported unmet needs for medical examination (%) 1.52 6.1 17 47 28.8 0.32 A2-B
Age-standardized Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) rate 1.52 1.5 9.1 24.2 63.6 0.46 A2-A
Low birth-weight (%) 0 6.1 12 42.4 39.4 0.34 A2-B
Preterm birth (%) 0 6.1 15 37.9 40.9 0.33 A2-B
  1. SD Strongly disagree, D Disagree, NAD Neither agree nor disagree, A Agree, SA Strongly agree, Pi Scott’s Pi inter-rater reliability coefficient, A1-A Approved in Round 1 - 1st Delphi process, by Absolute Majority (SA > 50% and SD + D < 33.3%), A2-A Approved in Round 2 - 1st Delphi process, by Absolute Majority (SA > 50% and SD + D < 33.3%), A2-B Approved in Round 2 - 2nd Delphi process, by Qualified Majority (SA + A > 75% and SD + D < 33.3%), A3-B Approved in Round 3 - 2nd Delphi process, by Qualified Majority (SA + A > 75%)