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Table 1 HERrespect theory of change

From: The HERrespect intervention to address violence against female garment workers in Bangladesh: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial

Outcomes Workers become more willing and equipped to engage in respectful dialogue with managers/colleagues at work and intimate partners Greater gender awareness and sense of empowerment Less acceptance and normalization of the use of violence Workers have better coping mechanisms to work stress Greater awareness on protection mechanism and support for abused women inside and outside the workplace
Outputs Workers are better able to communicate their needs at home and at work (i.e. asking for leave, explaining their needs, saying no in respectful ways) Workers are more aware of how gender shapes their roles and responsibilities, and also how men can become more involved in care responsibilities. Workers are more aware of how power affects their relationships and interactions with managers and their husbands Workers can identify both joyful and harmful relationships, as well as ways to ameliorate them Workers understand the sources of stress at work (collectively) and develop ways to deal with stress Workers are aware of where to seek help inside and outside the factory Workers aware of their rights and the responsibilities of the factory and the government
Exercises needed Active listening; body language; attack, avoid, manipulate; I statements; saying no in respectful ways; assertive responses Men and women: ideal and reality Power over; statues of power Joys and challenges; ways to get hurt; consequences of violence Managing stress at work Support systems for abused women; providing support as Change Makers Factory policies and local laws
Inputs Critical reflection on different ways of communicating (physical and verbal) through interactive activities Understanding the impact of gender expectations (on both women and men) in their day-to-day lives Reflecting on how power affects our relationships, how we communicate, how we make decisions Sharing of experiences of violence at home, at work, in the communities, and its consequences Sharing and mapping of the different points of stress at work Explaining to workers the types of services (medical, legal, counseling, shelter) for abused women Explaining to workers the factory policies and local laws
Responses Develop assertive communication skills Build an understanding of gender and how it impacts our roles and responsibilities Build understanding of power and how it interplays in different relationships Reaffirm that violence is never justified, no one deserves violence and everyone deserves respect in relationships Acknowledge the stress facing female workers Inform female workers of service providers and support within the factory Inform female workers of factory policies and local laws
Barriers Poor communication skills in speaking to managers/colleagues and intimate partners Gender inequity plays out in the factory through male management dominance over female workers; at home, dominance of husbands over their wives There is a general acceptance of the use of violence in relationships Female workers are under constant stress and do not have proper coping mechanisms Female workers have knowledge gaps - they are unaware of support services and their rights at work and outside of work
Problem Female workers are susceptible to violence both at work and at home. In the RMG setting, the use of violence is normalized, for instance, the use of name-calling and shouting. Female workers are at risk of sexual harassment. In Bangladesh, 73% of married women shared that they have experienced some form of violence by their partners in their lifetime.