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Table 3 Comparisons of self-efficacy, PA and weight status between elementary school (2008/09) and junior high/high school (2015/16)

From: Long-term effects of comprehensive school health on health-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, health behaviours and weight status of adolescents

  APPLE Schoolsa (Difference between graduates, 2015/16 and students, 2008/09) Comparison schoolsa (Difference between graduates, 2015/16 and students, 2008/09) Difference between graduates, 2015/16 and students, 2008/09 in APPLE Schools relative to comparison schoolsa
(group x time interaction)
ICC
Self-efficacy (coefficient and 95% CI)b
 Self-efficacy for healthy eating (β and 95% CI) 0.14 (−0.22,0.49) 0.30 (− 0.02, 0.62) − 0.16 (− 0.47, 0.14) 0.048
 Self-efficacy for PA (β and 95% CI) 0.18 (− 0.010, 0.47) −0.001 (− 0.27, 0.27) 0.19 (− 0.09, 0.45) 0.007
PA (coefficient and 95% CI)
 Typical week, steps/d − 776 (− 2171, 620) − 1571 (− 2912, − 230) 795 (− 317, 1908) 0.085
 School days, steps/d − 608 (− 2160, 944) − 1260 (− 2747, 227) 652 (− 582, 1886) 0.096
 Non-school days, steps/d − 1150 (− 2985, 686) − 1882 (− 3638, − 125) 732 (− 770, 2235) 0.042
 School hours, steps/h 54 (−76, 184) −32 (−154, 90) 86 (−17, 186) 0.182
 Non-school hours, steps/h −235 (− 369, −102) − 244 (− 374, −114) 8 (−101, 117) 0.041
Weight status (odds ratio and 95% CI)
 Overweight 0.82 (0.44, 1.54) 0.85 (0.46, 1.56) 0.96 (0.54, 1.72) 0.017
 Obesity 1.35 (0.59, 3.12) 2.36 (1.07, 5.20) 0.57 (0.27, 1.20) 0.039
  1. aModel adjusted for gender, age, parental educational attainment, household income, and geographic location
  2. bUsed factor scores from the confirmatory factor analyses
  3. Negative values of β and OR values below 1 indicate a lower value of the outcome in graduates relative to students
  4. Negative values of β and OR values below 1 indicate a lower value of the outcome in APPLE Schools relative to comparison schools between 2008/09 and 2015/16