Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of APPLE School students, APPLE School graduates, comparison schools students and comparison schools graduates

From: Long-term effects of comprehensive school health on health-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, health behaviours and weight status of adolescents

  2008/09 2015/16 p *
  APPLE Schools Comparison Schools APPLE Schools graduates*** Comparison Schools graduates***  
No. of schools 10 163 13 13  
No. of students 277 3300 202 338  
Gender, %
 Girls 50.2 52.0 48.3 59.1 0.021
 Boys 49.8 48.0 51.7 40.9  
Age, mean ± SD (years) 10.8 ± 0.4 10.9 ± 0.4 13.8 ± 1.4 14.0 ± 1.3 0.045
Knowledge (mean ± SD)** 2.73 ± 0.69 2.81 ± 0.71 3.26 ± 0.54 3.34 ± 0.49 0.07
Attitude (mean ± SD)** 3.42 ± 0.55 3.44 ± 0.57 2.72 ± 0.51 2.81 ± 0.41 0.04
Self-efficacy for healthy eating (mean ± SD)** 3.12 ± 0.63 3.11 ± 0.61 2.77 ± 0.73 2.81 ± 0.65 0.51
Self-efficacy for physical activity (mean ± SD)** 2.99 ± 0.63 3.09 ± 0.59 2.91 ± 0.76 2.83 ± 0.71 0.259
Dietary outcomes
 Mean dietary energy intake (kcal)/d ± SD 2117 ± 1242 1998 ± 1157 2173 ± 1034 2155 ± 1059 0.848
PA, mean ± SD
 Typical week, steps/d 9081 ± 2638 9798 ± 2960 6810 ± 2549 6667 ± 2586 0.615
 School days, steps/d 9943 ± 2834 10,540 ± 3242 7616 ± 2833 7413 ± 2960 0.528
 Non-school days, steps/d 6928 ± 3799 7944 ± 3851 5177 ± 3476 5067 ± 3188 0.787
 School hours, steps/h 777 ± 218 839 ± 245 653 ± 221 634 ± 231 0.445
 Non-school hours, steps/h 621 ± 300 638 ± 55 340 ± 222 323 ± 227 0.488
Weight status
 Overweight, % 44.4 37.6 44.6 32.3 0.005
 Obesity, % 19.5 14.0 18.7 15.7 0.381
Parental education, %
 Secondary or less 30.5 27.2 23.0 21.8 0.112
 College 41.1 42.1 32.8 24.9  
 University or above 28.5 30.7 44.3 53.2  
Household income, %
  < $50,000 34.5 21.6 13.7 24.8 p < 0.001
 $50,001 - $100,000 37.4 40.4 15.3 34.2  
  > $100,000 28.1 38.0 71.0 41.1  
Geographic Location, %
 Metropolitan 64.9 24.9 23.8 60.2 p < 0.001
 City 0.0 30.8 76.2 39.8  
 Rural-town 35.1 44.3  
  1. *p < 0.05 – statistically significant difference between APPLE School graduates and comparison school graduates
  2. **Mean score on the four-point scale (please see text)
  3. ***Average number of participants from each school was 41