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Table 1 Master and Osborn’s [31] movement building evaluation framework

From: Understanding community-based participatory research through a social movement framework: a case study of the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project

Stages/Core components Base building and mobilization Leadership Vision and frames Alliances, partnerships, networks Advocacy agenda and action strategy
Stage 1 - Emergence Participation of both paid and volunteer leaders is developed in base-building organizations;
Reflection time and assessment are built into the movement activities
Movement leaders and the roles they play emerge and are recognized within the movement;
Leaders are supported to develop their skills, roles and visibility
A process for creating a shared analysis of the problem is developed;
Movement organizations develop strategic plans with explicit movement goals
Alliance anchors increase organizations capacity;
Capacity for collaboration is developed
Needed skills and organizational capacities are identified and developed
Stage 2 - Coalescence New leaders are recruited;
New members and constituencies are recruited and the base is expanded
Collaborative leadership philosophy is widely adopted by movement leaders;
Leaders of the movement are respected for their different roles and responsibilities within the movement
Movement leaders develop shared values, motivations, and interests;
Movement values and priorities begin to gain salience outside of the movement
Number, breadth, and capacity of alliances are strengthened;
Joint strategic planning and identification of priorities among anchor organizations occurs;
Trust is built among alliance members
Identification of collective action goals;
Collaborative fundraising and sharing of resources increases
Stage 3 - Movement’s moment Power and leadership of the movement are recognized by the community base;
Movement experiences rapid recruitment and growth
Movement leaders are recognized by public institutions and political institutions Public support of the meta-narrative increases;
Political will for movement goals significantly increases
Movement organizations share resources;
Movement builds relationships with other movements
Major initiatives advance and are implemented;
Collective action reaches a peak
Stage 4 - Maintenance, integration, consolidation N/A New generation of leadership emerges Norms change and the vision becomes widely shared among public and political leaders N/A Movement’s priorities and advocacy agenda are widely accepted and continue to drive agendas of movement organizations