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Table 5 Associations between subsistence difficulty level and visit attendance, counseling attendance, nicotine patch use, and quit attempts among RCT participants (N = 75)

From: Subsistence difficulties are associated with more barriers to quitting and worse abstinence outcomes among homeless smokers: evidence from two studies in Boston, Massachusetts

  Visit attendance (0–14 visits) Counseling attendance (0–8 sessions) Weekly nicotine patch use (0–7 days per week) Monthly quit attempts (number per month)
Subsistence difficulty level Unadjusted mean (SD) Adjusted β (SE)a Unadjusted median (IQR) Adjusted IRR (95% CI)a Unadjusted mean (SD) Adjusted β (SE)a Unadjusted mean (SD) Adjusted β (SE)a
None 11.5 (2.9) Ref. 1 (0–3) Ref. 3.3 (0.5) Ref. 1.4 (0.3) Ref.
Low 8.7 (4.1)* − 3.2 (1.2)* 0 (0–2)* 0.57 (0.34–0.95)* 4.2 (0.5) 0.6 (0.7) 1.4 (0.4) 0.4 (0.4)
High 8.6 (3.9)* − 3.0 (1.2)* 1 (0–3) 0.95 (0.59–1.55) 4.2 (0.5) 0.9 (0.7) 1.7 (0.6) 0.6 (0.5)
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, SE standard error, IQR interquartile range, IRR incident rate ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted effect estimates obtained from ordinary least squares regression (visit attendance), Poisson regression (counseling attendance), or repeated measures linear regression with generalized estimating equations (nicotine patch use and quit attempts), each controlling for age, gender, race, drug use severity, alcohol use severity, psychiatric symptom severity, nicotine dependence, and treatment assignment
  3. *P < 0.05 for comparison to reference group (none)