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Table 3 Characteristics of survey and RCT participants, overall and by level of subsistence difficulty

From: Subsistence difficulties are associated with more barriers to quitting and worse abstinence outcomes among homeless smokers: evidence from two studies in Boston, Massachusetts

   Subsistence difficulty level  
Survey participants All None Low High P value
(N = 306) (N = 69) (N = 126) (N = 105)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, years, mean (SD) 47.6 (10.0) 49.2 (9.3) 48.5 (10.1) 45.7 (10.1) 0.01
 Male, N (%) 228 (74.8) 45 (65.2) 104 (82.5) 76 (72.4) 0.05
 Race/ethnicity, N (%)      0.41
  White non-Hispanic 108 (35.5) 27 (39.1) 45 (36.0) 35 (33.3)  
  Black non-Hispanic 124 (40.8) 31 (44.9) 51 (40.8) 40 (38.1)  
  Other non-Hispanic 16 (5.3) 1 (1.5) 5 (4.0) 9 (8.6)  
  Hispanic 56 (18.4) 10 (14.5) 24 (19.2) 21 (20.0)  
 High school graduate or GED, N (%) 211 (69.2) 49 (71.0) 97 (77.0) 64 (61.0) 0.03
 Health insurance, N (%) 299 (98.4) 68 (99.0) 123 (98.4) 103 (98.1) 0.97
 Worked for pay, past 30 days, N (%) 37 (12.1) 21 (30.4) 11 (8.7) 5 (4.8) < 0.001
 Income ($), past 30 days, mean (SD) 513 (398) 592 (415) 487 (410) 508 (368) 0.33
 Slept rough, past week, N (%) 37 (12.1) 3 (4.4) 12 (9.5) 22 (21.0) 0.003
Health characteristics
 Fair/poor health, N (%) 150 (49.7) 23 (33.3) 62 (49.2) 64 (61.0) 0.002
 Psychiatric severity (0–1), mean (SD) 0.42 (0.24) 0.31 (0.24) 0.40 (0.22) 0.51 (0.23) < 0.001
 Drug use severity (0–1), mean (SD) 0.13 (0.12) 0.09 (0.10) 0.11 (0.11) 0.18 (0.12) < 0.001
 Alcohol use severity (0–1), mean (SD) 0.22 (0.25) 0.14 (0.19) 0.20 (0.23) 0.30 (0.28) 0.001
Smoking characteristics
 Nicotine dependence (0–10), mean (SD) 4.4 (2.3) 4.0 (2.1) 4.3 (2.1) 4.9 (2.5) 0.004
 Cigarettes per day, mean (SD) 12.5 (8.3) 12.4 (8.0) 11.1 (6.6) 13.7 (8.8) 0.04
 Ways of acquiring cigarettes, N (%)      
  Buying packs 288 (96.0) 67 (97.1) 122 (96.8) 99 (94.3) 0.59
  Buying/rolling loose tobacco 165 (55.0) 25 (36.2) 71 (56.3) 69 (65.7) 0.001
  Buying singles 251 (83.7) 45 (65.2) 107 (84.9) 99 (94.3) < 0.001
  Trading 125 (41.7) 16 (23.2) 47 (37.3) 62 (59.0) < 0.001
  Borrowing or “bumming” 247 (82.3) 45 (65.2) 105 (83.3) 97 (92.4) < 0.001
  Sniping 121 (40.3) 13 (18.8) 51 (40.5) 57 (54.3) < 0.001
   Subsistence difficulty level  
RCT participants All None Low High P value
(N = 75) (N = 21) (N = 27) (N = 27)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, years, mean (SD) 46.4 (9.1) 45.9 (9.0) 46.6 (9.2) 46.7 (9.4) 0.94
 Male, N (%) 34 (45.3) 9 (42.9) 14 (51.9) 11 (40.7) 0.69
 Race/ethnicity, N (%)      0.49
 White non-Hispanic 31 (41.3) 9 (42.9) 7 (25.9) 15 (55.6)  
 Black non-Hispanic 26 (34.7) 7 (33.3) 12 (44.4) 7 (25.9)  
 Other non-Hispanic 5 (6.7) 2 (9.5) 2 (7.4) 1 (3.7)  
 Hispanic 13 (17.3) 3 (14.3) 6 (22.2) 4 (14.8)  
Health characteristics
 Fair/poor health, N (%) 33 (44.0) 8 (38.1) 11 (40.7) 14 (51.9) 0.50
 Psychiatric severity (0–1), mean (SD) 0.30 (0.22) 0.21 (0.19) 0.35 (0.24) 0.32 (0.19) 0.09
 Drug use severity (0–1), mean (SD) 0.12 (0.09) 0.10 (0.09) 0.11 (0.08) 0.16 (0.10) 0.02
 Alcohol use severity (0–1), mean (SD) 0.13 (0.19) 0.09 (0.11) 0.14 (0.22) 0.16 (0.22) 0.38
Smoking characteristics
 Nicotine dependence (0–10), mean (SD) 5.0 (1.9) 5.0 (1.7) 4.8 (1.7) 5.3 (2.2) 0.60
 Cigarettes per day, mean (SD) 15.7 (6.9) 16.0 (7.7) 15.1 (7.1) 16.1 (6.4) 0.86