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Table 2 Linear regression analysis for the Warnings Impact Score (WIS)

From: Responses to textual and pictorial cigarette pack health warnings: findings from an exploratory cross-sectional survey study in Austria

  Warnings impact score
  b β [95% CI] p
(Intercept) −0.81 0.03 [ −0.33, 0.40] 0.86
Assessment of the validity of warnings 0.06 0.13 [0.03, 0.22] 0.01
Smoking risk assessment 0.05 0.22 [0.13, 0.32] 0.00
Use of neutral covers (ref.: no)    
Yes −0.01 −0.01 [ −0.24, 0.22] 0.96
Cigarette dependence (score FTCD) −0.05 −0.13 [ −0.25, −0.01] 0.04
Smoking status (ref.: regularly)    
Occasionally 0.29 0.29 [0.04, 0.54] 0.02
Number of years smoking (ref.: ≤3 years)    
4–10 years −0.09 −0.09 [ −0.40, 0.23] 0.59
>10 years −0.35 −0.35 [ −0.70, 0.00] 0.05
Household income (ref.: ≤2000 Euros)    
2001–3000 Euros 0.03 0.03 [ −0.19, 0.25] 0.82
>3000 Euros 0.04 0.04 [ −0.22, 0.30] 0.76
Educational level (ref.: still in school/compulsory)    
Apprenticeship/vocational −0.13 −0.13 [ −0.43, 0.16] 0.38
High school diploma 0.15 0.15 [ −0.16, 0.46] 0.36
University degree −0.11 −0.11 [ −0.49, 0.26] 0.55
Age group (ref.: 15–23 years)    
>23 years 0.19 0.19 [ −0.13, 0.50] 0.25
Sex (ref.: male)    
Female −0.01 −0.01 [ −0.19, 0.17] 0.95
  1. N=460. Pooled R2=0.204. ref., reference group. b, unstandardized coefficient. β, standardized coefficient. CI, Confidence interval. p, p-value. FTCD, Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence