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Table 5 Unstandardized path coefficients for the mediation model of affect towards cigarettes, risk perceptions, and smoking (n = 5389)

From: Affect, risk perception, and the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes: a population study of U.S. adults

Direct paths Path coefficienta 95% CI p
Affect → Smoking Status (ref = Current Smoker)
 Never Smoker (vs. Current Smoker) − 0.20 − 0.22 – − 0.18 < 0.001
 Former Smoker (vs. Current Smoker) − 0.14 − 0.16 – − 0.12 < 0.001
Affect → Risk Perceptions − 0.66 −0.82 – − 0.50 < 0.001
Risk Perceptions → Smoking Status (ref = Current Smoker)
 Never Smoker (vs. Current Smoker) 0.09 0.08 – 0.09 < 0.001
 Former Smoker (vs. Current Smoker) 0.06 0.05 – 0.07 < 0.001
Covariates → Affect
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)    
  30–44 years old 0.49 0.10 – 0.88 0.013
  45–59 years old 0.36 − 0.02 – 0.74 0.065
  60+ years old 1.16 0.79 – 1.54 < 0.001
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)    
  Black, non-Hispanic 0.04 − 0.42 – 0.49 0.872
  Hispanic, any race 0.07 − 0.32 – 0.46 0.732
  Other 0.28 − 0.30 – 0.87 0.343
 Education (ref = <High School)    
  High School − 0.37 − 0.90 – 0.16 0.174
  Some College − 0.72 −1.27 – − 0.16 0.012
  Bachelor’s degree or higher − 1.21 − 1.79 – − 0.64 < 0.001
 Female − 0.50 − 0.78 – − 0.22 < 0.001
Covariates → Risk Perceptions
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)    
  30–44 years old 0.75 − 0.45 – 1.94 0.221
  45–59 years old 1.75 0.57 – 2.92 0.004
  60+ years old 2.96 1.80 – 4.11 < 0.001
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)    
  Black, non-Hispanic − 0.10 − 1.66 – 1.47 0.902
  Hispanic, any race 0.71 − 0.48 – 1.91 0.241
  Other 0.02 − 1.86 – 1.91 0.980
 Education (ref = <High School)    
  High School 1.55 0.03 – 3.07 0.045
  Some College 0.88 − 0.67 – 2.43 0.266
  Bachelor’s degree or higher 2.42 0.92 – 3.91 0.002
 Female 2.11 1.28 – 2.94 < 0.001
Covariates → Never Smoker (vs. Current Smoker)
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)    
  30–44 years old − 0.68 − 0.88 – − 0.48 < 0.001
  45–59 years old − 0.57 − 0.75 – − 0.38 < 0.001
  60+ years old − 0.02 − 0.23 – 0.20 0.894
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)    
  Black, non-Hispanic − 0.42 − 0.68 – − 0.17 0.001
  Hispanic, any race 0.07 − 0.15 – 0.29 0.560
  Other 0.27 0.06 – 0.47 0.012
 Education (ref = <High School)    
  High School 0.31 0.05 – 0.58 0.019
  Some College 0.79 0.52 – 1.06 < 0.001
  Bachelor’s degree or higher 1.72 1.46 – 1.99 < 0.001
 Female 0.02 − 0.12 – 0.17 0.746
Covariates Former smoker (vs. Current Smoker)
 Age (ref = 18–29 years old)    
  30–44 years old 0.40 0.15 – 0.65 0.002
  45–59 years old 0.75 0.53 – 0.98 < 0.001
  60+ years old 1.84 1.58 – 2.09 < 0.001
 Race/Ethnicity (ref = White, non-Hispanic)    
  Black, non-Hispanic − 0.67 − 0.93 – − 0.41 < 0.001
  Hispanic, any race − 0.10 − 0.33 – 0.12 0.373
  Other − 0.34 − 0.64 – − 0.04 0.027
 Education (ref = <High School)    
  High School 0.46 0.16 – 0.76 0.003
  Some College 0.72 0.41 – 1.03 < 0.001
  Bachelor’s degree or higher 0.88 0.57 – 1.19 < 0.001
 Female − 0.29 − 0.45 – − 0.14 < 0.001
Factor Loadings
 Risk Perceptions    
  Lung Cancer 0.98 0.98 – 0.99 < 0.001
  Lung Disease (e.g., COPD) 0.99 0.98 – 0.99 < 0.001
  Heart Disease 0.97 0.96 – 0.97 < 0.001
  Early/Premature Death 0.96 0.95 – 0.97 < 0.001
 Affect    
  First Image Rating 0.87 0.86 – 0.89 < 0.001
  Second Image Rating 1.00 1.00 – 1.00 < 0.001
  1. Ref = referent group or category. denotes an estimated model path (for example, “Affect Smoking Status” signifies the path for the regression of smoking status on affect). aCoeffients are either multinomial logistic coefficients (unstandardized; akin to logistic regression coefficients) if smoking status is the outcome variable (i.e., “Smoking Status”, “Former smoker”, or “ Never smoker”), standardized factor loadings or residual correlations for the measurement model paths, or are linear coefficients (akin to regression coefficients) otherwise (i.e., “Affect” or “ Risk Perceptions”)