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Table 3 Mean valence of cigarette and electronic cigarette image by cigarette smoker status

From: Affect, risk perception, and the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes: a population study of U.S. adults

  Cigarette images E-cigarette images
Image categories Total Current smoker Former smoker Never smoker Total Current smoker Former smoker Never smoker
Synonym − 0.62 0.01 − 0.72 − 1.02 − 0.27 0.19 − 0.19 − 0.47
Disgust − 0.99 − 0.96 − 0.85 − 1.05 − 0.69 − 0.63 − 0.34 − 0.86
Risky − 1.40 − 1.42 − 1.32 − 1.43 − 1.22 − 0.66 − 1.11 − 1.30
Addiction − 0.94 − 0.33 − 1.04 − 1.29 − 0.86 − 0.11 − 0.62 − 1.11
Relaxing/ Satisfaction 1.10 1.30 0.77 0.28 0.96 0.85 1.15 0.94
Safer than cigarettes 0.82 1.12 0.72 0.78
Same/worse than cigarette − 0.44 0.25 − 0.34 − 0.57
Other 0.02 − 0.16 0.37 − 0.34 0.03 0.28 0.17 − 0.14
Overall − 0.83 − 0.05 − 0.70 − 1.10 −0.24 0.22 − 0.10 − 0.43
  1. Note: Valence was rated on a 5-point scale from −2 (very bad) to + 2 (very good) (with 0 being “neither good nor bad”)