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Table 1 Definitions of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporosis

From: Appropriateness of bone density measurement in Switzerland: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Coding System Indicator
Osteoporosis a Using ICD, ATC codes Diagnostic code (ICD, DRG), antiresorptive medication (ATC)
Risk factors for osteoporosis according to FRAX® scorea [11] Using ICD, DRG, CHOP, Tarmed and ATC codes Steroid medication, fracture in typical location (distal radius fracture, proximal humerus fracture, vertebral fracture, femur fracture) rheumatoid arthritis, insulin dependent diabetes (as a proxy variable for type I diabetes), osteogenesis imperfecta, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, chronic liver disease, nicotine and alcohol abuses, malnutrition, underweight or malabsorption (including gastric by-pass and inflammatory bowel disease)
Risk factors for osteoporosis according to Swiss Association against Osteoporosis (SVGO) a Using ICD, DRG, CHOP, Tarmed and ATC codes Hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, asthma or COPD, multiple myeloma, antiepileptic drugs and anti-HIV drugs
  1. Definition of clinical characteristics and medication; a Data 6 months prior to DXA screening were taken into account