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Table 1 Differences on parenting, executive function and school readiness between families with optimal and suboptimal bedtime routines

From: Bedtime routines child wellbeing & development

  Optimal Bedtime Routines (M, SD) Sub-optimal Bedtime Routines (M, SD) df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference (95% C.I.)
Parenting Authoritative Parenting 3.4
(0.68)
2.3 (0.72) 48 .001a −1.313
(−1.721, −.904)
Authoritarian Parenting 1.5
(2.50)
2.5 (0.57) 48 .001a 1.040
(.719, 1.362)
Permissive Parenting 1.9
(0.54)
3.3 (0.97) 48 .003b 1.392
(.9000, 1.882)
Executive Function / Adults Inhibition-Attention Adults 102.7 (7.00) 83.7 (4.90) 48 .001a −18.983
(−22.615,-15.351)
Working Memory Adults 100.1 (6.13) 80.4 (7.05) 48 .001a −19.650
(−23.431, − 15.868)
Cognitive Flexibility Adults 105.3 (5.59) 84.3 (4.96) 48 .001a −21.017
(−24.123, −17.910)
BRIEF-Adults (Global Executive Composite)c 45.3
(3.59)
53.1 (2.51) 48 .007a 7.800
(5.938, 9.662)
  School Readiness 106.1 (8.00) 81.2 (5.40) 48 .001a −24.900
(−29.020, −20.780)
Executive Function / Children Inhibition-Attention Children 103.2 (5.59) 84.3 (7.29) 48 .001a −18.850
(−22.753, −14.946)
Working Memory Children 100.3 (6.25) 83.0 (7.29) 44 .001a −17.310
(−21.406, − 13.213)
Cognitive Flexibility Children 105.1 (5.74) 84.1 (5.25) 48 .001a −21.066
(−24.289, −17.843)
BRIEF-Preschool Children (Global Executive Composite)c 42.7
(2.88)
48.3 (2.61) 48 .005a 5.566
(3.950, 7.182)
  1. a Equal variances assumed
  2. b Equal variances not assumed
  3. c Lower scores indicate better executive function