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Table 1 Scale and variable items

From: Mental ill health and factors associated with men’s use of intimate partner violence in Zimbabwe

Variable/ Scale Average inter-item covariance Number of items Scale reliability coefficient Items
Sexual IPV   3   Have you ever physically forced your current or ex-girlfriend or wife to have sex when she did not want to? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have you ever had sex with a current or ex-girlfriend or wife when she did not want to? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have you ever forced your current or ex-girlfriend or wife to do something sexual that you found degrading or humiliating? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have any of these things happened in the past 12 months? (Yes or No)
Physical IPV   5   Have you ever slapped or thrown something at your current or ex-girlfriend or wife which could hurt her? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have you ever pushed or shoved your current or ex-girlfriend or wife? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many) Have you ever hit your current or ex-girlfriend or wife? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have you ever kicked, dragged, beat, choke or burnt your current or ex-girlfriend or wife? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have you ever threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against your current or ex-girlfriend or wife? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one from Never, Once, Few, Many); Have any of these things happened in the past 12 months? (Yes or No)
Emotional IPV   6   Have you ever insulted your current or a previous girlfriend or wife or made her feel bad about herself? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? Have you ever belittled or humiliated a current or ex-girlfriend or wife in front of other people? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one) Have you ever done things to scare or intimidate a current or ex-girlfriend or wife on purpose for example by the way you looked at her, by yelling and smashing things? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one). Have you ever threatened to hurt your current or ex-girlfriend or wife? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one) Have you ever boasted about or brought home girlfriends? Did this happen many times, a few times, once or did it not happen? (Choose one). Have any of these things happened in the past 12 months?
Child trauma scale 0.09 13 0.74 I did not have enough to eat; I lived in different households at different times; One or both of my parents were too drunk to take care of me; I spent time outside the home and none of the adults at home knew where I was; I saw or heard my mother being beaten by her husband or boyfriend; I was insulted or humiliated by someone in my family in front of other people; I was told I was lazy or stupid or weak by someone in my family; Someone touched my buttocks or genitals or made me touch them when I did not want to; I had sex with a woman who was more than 5 years older than me; I had sex with someone because I was threatened or frightened or forced;I was beaten at home with a belt or stick or whip or something else which was hard; I was beaten so hard at home that it left a mark or bruise; I was beaten or physically punished at school by a teacher
GEM Scale 0.16 10 0.74 You don’t talk about sex, you just do it; There are times when a woman deserves to be beaten; Changing nappies, giving kids a bath, and feeding the kids are the mother’s responsibility; It is a woman’s responsibility to avoid getting pregnant; A man should have the final word about decisions in his home; Men are always ready to have sex; I would be outraged if I asked him to use a condom; If someone insults me, I will defend my reputation, with force if I have to; To be a man, you need to be tough; Men should be embarrassed if they are unable to get an erection during sex.
Life events score   10 0.71 Traumatic events included imprisonment/detainment, civil unrest/war, serious injury requiring hospitalization, being close to death, witnessing a murder of family or friend, unnatural death of family or friend, witnessing the murder of stranger/s, torture, witnessing or being robbed or car hijacked at gun or knife point and kidnapping.
SRPS 0.13 12 0.77 I become jealous when she wears things that make her look too beautiful; I have more to say than she does about important decisions that affect us; I never tell her who she can see or spend time with; I like to do what I want, even if she doesn’t want me to; When she and I disagree, I get my way most of the time;I like to know where she is most of the time; I expect her to do things for me like my ironing and cooking; I let her know that she is not the only girlfriend I have or could have; When I want sex I expect her to agree; If she asked me to use a condom I would get angry; If she asked me to use a condom I would think she is having sex with other people; If she asked me to use a condom I would hit her.