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Table 4 Secondary outcomes - more active versus less active groups (Direct measures of balance)

From: The association between balance and free-living physical activity in an older community-dwelling adult population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Comparison or subgroup No. of studies N Effect size Heterogeneity
*1 Somatosensory Organisation Test (Somatosensory. ratio).++ 3 139 0.90 (−0.58, 2.38) 81%
1.1 Somatosensory Organisation Test (Somatosensory. ratio). ++. 2 63 0.16 (003, 0.29) 0%
*2 Somatosensory Organisation Test (Visual ratio). ++ 3 139 −2.71 (−3.99, −1.44) 100%
2.1 Somatosensory Organisation Test (Visual ratio). ++ 2 63 0.13 (0.03, 0.22) 40%
*3 Somatosensory Organisation Test (Vestibular ratio). ++ 3 139 −0.02 (−0.04, 0.00) 0%
3.1 Somatosensory Organisation Test (Vestibular ratio). ++ 2 63 −0.02 (− 0.04, 0.00) 0%
*4 Static total body stability eyes open (m). Low value indicates better balance. 3 302 −0.37 (− 0.74, 0.01) 57%
*5 Static total body stability eyes open (cm2). Low value indicates better balance. 4 231 −0.89 (−2.11, 0.33) 93%
5.1 Static total body stability eyes open (cm2). Low value indicates better balance. 2 145 0.34 (−0.25, 0.94) 66%
*6 Static total body stability eyes open (velocity) (cm/s). Low value indicates better balance. 3 161 −1.55 (−3.35, 0.25) 95%
6.1 Static total body stability eyes open (velocity) (cm/s). Low value indicates better balance. 2 135 0.07 (−0.29, 0.43) 2%
*7 Static total body stability eyes closed (velocity) (cm/s). Low value indicates better balance. 3 161 −1.67 (−3.50, 0.16) 95%
7.1 Static total body stability eyes closed (velocity) (cm/s). Low value indicates better balance. 2 135 −3.05 (−9.53, 3.43) 2%
*8 Static ML stability body angle (degrees). Low value indicates better balance. 2 96 −0.12 (−0.52, 0.28) 0%
*9 Static AP stability body angle (degrees). Low value indicates better balance. 2 96 −0.11 (− 0.75, 0.53) 60%
*10 Dynamic AP stability (forward) (angle °). Low value indicates better balance. 2 72 0.01 (−2.19, 2.22) 94%
*11 Dynamic Loss of Stability (max excursion) (%). Low value indicates better balance. 2 68 1.09 (0.57,1.60) 0%
*12 Dynamic Loss of stability (directional control) (%). Low value indicates better balance. 2 68 1.02 (0.47, 1.58) 11%
  1. Note: Data is shown for 12 variables. For some variables there are two sets of data, the first set of data identified with * includes all available data, whereas the second set of data excludes studies at high risk of bias
  2. Higher value indicates better balance unless otherwise stated
  3. ++ Mean difference (95% CI) was calculated (SOT visual, vestibular and somatosensory ratios), and standardised mean (95% CI) calculated for all other measures