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Table 4 Estimated proportions of the associations between education and health mediated by each mediatora (N = 20,024)

From: Widening disparities in health between educational levels and their determinants in later life: evidence from a nine-year cohort study

  Men (n = 9320) Women (n = 10,704)
Proportion (%) 95% CIb Proportion (%) 95% CI
Self-rated health
 Low household spending 1.0 (−1.6, 3.5) −3.6 (−6.1, − 1.2)
 Low social participation 31.1†c (24.4, 37.7) 30.7 (24.3, 37.2)
 Low physical activity 15.0 (6.8, 23.2) 9.3 (4.2, 14.4)
 Smoking 3.1 (0.5, 5.7) 2.0 (−1.2, 5.1)
 Problem drinking 1.2 (−0.3, 2.6) −0.8 (−2.2, 0.6)
 No regular health check-up 6.0 (2.2, 9.7) 2.0 (0.1, 3.9)
 Total 57.3 (28.9, 85.6) 39.5 (12.3, 66.8)
 Total for significant mediatorsd 55.2 (44.2, 66.1) 42.0 (33.8, 50.1)
Functional limitations
 Low household spending 0.3 (−3.2, 3.8) −2.3 (−5.7, 1.2)
 Low social participation 41.8 (32.3, 51.2) 27.4 (18.7, 36.2)
 Low physical activity 12.1 (7.4, 16.8) 7.3 (3.3, 11.3)
 Smoking 3.9† (0.3, 7.6) 9.8 (−4.5, 15.1)
 Problem drinking 0.8 (−1.0, 2.6) −0.9 (−2.6, 0.9)
 No regular health check-up 6.5† (3.0, 10.0) 4.9 (2.0, 7.9)
 Total 65.4 (21.3, 109.5) 46.4 (4.3, 88.4)
 Total for significant mediatorsd 64.3 (53.6, 74.9) 49.5 (38.8, 60.3)
Psychological distress
 Low household spending 2.4 (−0.8, 5.5) −1.6 (−6.3, 3.1)
 Low social participation 32.2 (24.1, 40.3) 46.2 (33.2, 59.1)
 Low physical activity 7.7 (1.9, 13.5) 6.5 (0.2, 12.8)
 Smoking 0.6 (−2.4, 3.6) 4.7 (−1.9, 11.4)
 Problem drinking 1.3 (−0.5, 3.1) 0.2 (−2.1, 2.5)
 No regular health check-up 7.4 (2.8, 11.9) 6.1 (2.0, 10.3)
 Total 51.6 (16.0, 87.3) 62.1 (7.9, 116.4)
 Total for significant mediatorsd 47.3 (36.9, 57.6) 58.8 (44.9, 72.7)
  1. aControlled for baseline value of each health variable as well as ages at baseline
  2. b95% confidence intervals obtained via bootstrap estimation with 2000 replications
  3. cIndicates that bootstrap-estimated 95% CI was above zero
  4. dMediators with