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Table 2 Regression models exploring the association between referral source (independent variable; provider-referred vs. self-referred) and outcomes of interest (dependent variable)

From: High HIV risk and syndemic burden regardless of referral source among MSM screening for a PrEP demonstration project in Toronto, Canada

  Univariable models   Multivariable models  
MOA (95% CI) p MOA (95% CI) p
Outcomes of interest (dependent variable)
Syndemic scorea IRR = 0.96 (0.66, 1.38) 0.82 aIRR = 1.01 (0.72, 1.41) 0.95
Syndemic score compositesa
 Presence of depressive symptoms, last week OR = 0.75 (0.27, 1.98) 0.67 aOR = 0.74 (0.27, 1.98) 0.67
 Presence of alcohol related problem, last year OR = 0.75 (0.27, 1.98) 0.67 aOR = 0.91 (0.32, 2.58) 0.99
 Use of multiple substance, last 3 months OR = 2.08 (0.75, 5.87) 0.18 aOR = 2.20 (0.78, 6.44) 0.15
 Presence of sexual addiction OR = 0.68(0.23, 1.92) 0.58 aOR = 0.74 (0.24, 2.12) 0.70
 HIRI-MSM scoreb β = 2.10 (−1.77, 5.96) 0.29 aβ =2.04 (−1.84, 5.92) 0.30
HIRI-MSM score compositesb
 Used poppers, last 3 months OR = 3.20 (1.14, 9.78) 0.02 aOR = 3.16 (1.08, 10.12) 0.03
 Used amphetamine, last 3 months OR = 0.74 (0.15, 3.05) 0.89 aOR = 0.69 (0.14, 2.87) 0.82
 Age (in years) β = 2.74 (−1.53, 7.02) 0.21 aβ = 2.66 (−1.39, 6.72) 0.20
Total number of male sex partners, last 6 months
  ≤ 10 male partners Ref.   Ref.  
  > 10 male partners OR = 2.46 (0.74, 9.67) 0.17 aOR = 2.35 (0.72, 9.15) 0.19
Number of receptive CAS male partners, last 6 months
 0 times Ref   Ref  
 1 or more times OR = 0.93 (0.31, 2.89) 0.99 aOR = 0.93 (0.31, 2.81) 0.99
Number of HIV-positive male sex partners, last 6 months
  < 1 positive partner Ref   Ref  
  ≥ 1 positive partner OR = 1.45(0.55, 3.94) 0.55 aOR = 1.43 (0.55, 3.87) 0.56
Number of insertive CAS HIV-positive male partners, last 6 months
 0–4 times Ref   Ref  
 5 or more times OR = 2.59 (0.82, 8.61) 0.11 aOR = 2.82 (0.88, 9.55) 0.09
  1. Measure of association (MOA) in each row is derived from a separate regression model and refers to the association between the referral source (independent variable; self-referred = referent category) and outcome of interest (independent variable). An OR or IRR of greater than 1 (or a positive β value) indicates that being provider-referred was positively associated with the outcome of interest. For example, being provider-referred was associated with a lower odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.75), but the finding was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.27–1.98). MOA: Measure of Association; CI: Confidence Interval; β: beta coefficient from linear regression; aβ: adjusted beta coefficient from linear regression; IRR: incident rate ratio from Poisson regression; aIRR: adjusted incident rate ratio from Poisson regression; OR: odds ratio from logistic regression; aOR: adjusted odds ratio from logistic regression; HIRI-MSM: HIV Incidence Risk Index for Men who have Sex with Men; CAS: Condomless Anal Sex; CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; SCS: Sexual Compulsivity Scale. aMultivariables models are controlled for age, race/ethnicity, and education; bMultivariables models are controlled for race/ethnicity, and education