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Table 2 Relationships between variables of cooking oil fume exposure and the risk of chronic bronchitis among non-smoking women (N = 644)

From: Exposure to cooking oil fumes and chronic bronchitis in nonsmoking women aged 40 years and over: a health-care based study

Variables No pulmonary disease (N = 306) Probably chronic bronchitis (N = 285) Definite chronic bronchitis (N = 53)
N (%) N (%) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)* N (%) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)*
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 106 (34.6) 79 (27.7) 1 1 4 (7.6) 1 1
 Second-hand smoker 200 (65.4) 206 (72.3) 1.38 (0.97–1.96) 1.42 (0.99–2.03) 49 (92.5) 6.49 (2.28–18.48) 6.66 (2.31–19.20)
Cooked in the kitchen
 No 22 (7.2) 13 (4.6) 1 1 5 (9.4) 1 1
 Yes 284 (92.8) 272 (95.4) 1.62 (0.80–3.82) 1.65 (0.80–3.43) 48 (90.6) 0.74 (0.27–2.06) 0.73 (0.22–2.43)
Excluding no cook
Age stared cooking
  > 22 years 126 (44.4) 132 (48.5) 1 1 21 (43.8) 1 1
  ≤ 22 years 158 (55.6) 140 (51.5) 0.85 (0.61–1.18) 0.86 (0.61–1.23) 27 (56.3) 1.03 (0.55–1.90) 1.13 (0.58–2.20)
Meals per week
 1–13 85 (29.9) 55 (20.2) 1 1 5 (10.4) 1 1
 14–20 94 (33.1) 84 (30.9) 1.38 (0.88–2.16) 1.52 (0.95–2.42) 14 (29.2) 2.53 (0.88–7.32) 2.71 (0.84–8.14)§
 21–31 105 (37.0) 133 (48.9) 1.96 (1.28–2.99) 2.14 (1.36–3.36) 29 (60.4) 4.69 (1.74–12.65) 4.73 (1.65–13.53)
Fuel used for cookinga
 Gas/electric stove 179 (63.0) 152 (56.1) 1 1 28 (58.3) 1 1
 Biomass fuels 67 (23.6) 68 (25.1) 1.20 (0.80–1.78) 1.39 (0.85–2.26) 12 (25.0) 1.15 (0.55–2.38) 1.15 (0.47–2.85)
 Coal 38 (13.4) 51 (18.8) 1.58 (0.99–2.54) 1.83 (1.07–3.13) 8 (16.7) 1.35 (0.57–3.18) 1.36 (0.51–3.65)
Windows in the home kitchenb
 No 15 (5.3) 17 (6.4) 1 1 6 (13.6) 1 1
 ≥ 1 266 (94.7) 247 (93.6) 0.82 (0.40–1.68) 0.80 (0.38–1.68) 38 (86.4) 0.36 (0.13–0.98) 0.40 (0.14–1.16)
Ventilation in the home kitchenc
 Poor 14 (5.0) 9 (3.3) 1 1 6 (12.5) 1 1
 Good 269 (95.1) 261 (96.7) 1.51 (0.64–3.55) 1.46 (0.61–3.50) 42 (87.5) 0.36 (0.13–1.00) 0.35 (0.12–1.04)
Installed fume extractord
 No 122 (43.6) 128 (48.3) 1 1 25 (52.1) 1 1
 Yes 158 (56.4) 137 (51.7) 0.83 (0.59–1.16) 0.75 (0.50–1.12) 23 (47.9) 0.71 (0.39–1.31) 0.69 (0.34–1.43)
Eye irritation during cookinge
 No 241 (96.0) 238 (96.0) 1 1 42 (93.3) 1 1
 Yes 10 (4.0) 10 (4.0) 1.01 (0.41–2.48) 1.05 (0.42–2.62) 3 (6.7) 1.72 (0.46–6.52) 1.97 (0.48–8.01)
Smokiness during cookingf
 No 232 (92.1) 226 (91.1) 1 1 40 (88.9) 1 1
 Yes 20 (7.9) 22 (8.9) 1.13 (0.60–2.13) 1.17 (0.61–2.24) 5 (11.1) 1.45 (0.52–4.09) 1.36 (0.46–4.00)
  1. AOR adjusted OR; COR crude OR; OR odds ratio
  2. *Adjusting for age, second hand smoke status, height, education level, burning incense, and tea consumption
  3. Trend test from 1 to 13, 14–20, to 21–31 meals per week in probably chronic bronchitis: p = 0.009; and in chronic bronchitis: p = 0.0023
  4. Trend test from gas/electric stove, biomass fuels, to coal in probably chronic bronchitis: p = 0.025; and in chronic bronchitis: p = 0.544
  5. §Trend test from no pulmonary disease, probably chronic bronchitis, to chronic bronchitis in 14–20 meals per week: p = 0.020; and in 21–31 meals per week: p <  0.0001
  6. aMissing data, n = 1 (0,1,0). bMissing data, n = 15 (3,8,4). cMissing data, n = 3 (1,2,0). dMissing data, n = 11 (4,7,0). eMissing data, n = 60 (33,24,3). fMissing data, n = 59 (32,24,3)