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Table 2 PAF and PIF for selected modifiable exposures associated with non-EBF in Nigeria (1999–2013)

From: Population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

Risk factors Cases of non-EBF (a) PAF% (95% CI) PIF% (95% CI)
Low and no maternal education 4222 22.8 (9.2–37.0) 0.5 (−7.0; 7.7)
Middle and poor household wealth 4730 24.7 (9.5–39.5)
Lower number (1–3) and no antenatal care visits 3368 9.7 (1.7–18.1) 5.4 (−3.0; 13.9)
Home delivery 3987 18.8 (6.9–30.8) 2.8 (−3.6; 8.9)
Delivery assistance from non-health professional (traditional birth attendants and untrained personnel) 4012 16.6 (3.0–31.3) 2.3 (−4.6; 9.2)
Joint PAF and PIF combinations (in descending order) Cases of non-EBF (a) Joint PAF% (95%CI) Joint PIF% (95%CI)
Mat. Edu + H. wealth + ANC + Pl. delivery + Del. assistance 20,319 64.5 (50.5–76.2)
Mat. Edu + H. wealth + ANC + Pl. delivery 16,307 57.4 (42.4–70.2)
Mat. Edu + ANC + Pl. delivery + Del. assistance 15,589 52.8 (37.4–66.4) 10.5 (−5.4; 24.7)
Mat. Edu + H. wealth + ANC 12,320 47.8 (31.2–61.7)
Mat. Edu + H. wealth 8952 41.9 (25.3–56.9)
ANC + Pl. delivery + Del. assistance 11,367 38.9 (23.5–53.2) 8.0 (−2.2;17.9)
Maternal education 4222 22.8 (9.1–37.4)
  1. (a) Cases of non-EBF estimated from the total sample
  2. PAF: Population attributable fraction; PIF: Potential impact fraction; Potential impact fractions calculated only for exposures where published intervention estimates were available. Mat. Edu: low and no maternal education; H. wealth: middle and poor household wealth; ANC: lower number (1–3) and no antenatal care visits; Pl delivery: home delivery; Del. assistance: delivery assistance from a non-health professional (traditional birth attendants and untrained personnel)