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Table 3 Mean daily habitual dietary GHG emission and nutrient intakes (with 95% CI), for all scenarios

From: Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

   GHG emission (kg CO2-eq) Energy (Kcal) Protein (g) Mono- and disaccharides (g) SFA (g) Sodium (g)a Iron (mg)
Reference Men 6.7 (6.5–6.8) 3112 (3041–3185) 120 (117–123) 139 (133–145) 46 (44–48) 3.7 (3.6–3.8) 14.2 (13.8–14.6)
Women 5.1 (5.0–5.3) 2287 (2233–2345) 92 (89–94) 117 (112–122) 36 (35–37) 2.8 (2.7–2.9) 11.6 (11.3–12.0)
Cheese Men 6.6 (6.4–6.7) 3116 (3044–3188) 119 (116–121) 140 (134–146) 44 (43–46) 3.7 (3.6–3.8) 14.3 (14.0–14.7)
Women 5.0 (4.9–5.2) 2292 (2237–2351) 91 (88–93) 118 (113–122) 34 (33–36) 2.8 (2.7–2.9) 11.7 (11.4–12.1)
Water50 Men 6.4 (6.2–6.5) 2910 (2848–2979)* 119 (116–121) 122 (117–128)* 46 (44–48) 3.7 (3.6–3.8) 13.8 (13.4–14.2)
Women 5.0 (4.8–5.1) 2186 (2135–2242) 91 (89–93) 103 (99–107)* 36 (34–37) 2.8 (2.7–2.9) 11.2 (10.9–11.5)
Water100 Men 6.1 (5.9–6.2)* 2694 (2629–2758)* 118 (115–120) 104 (99–109)* 46 (44–48) 3.7 (3.6–3.8) 13.4 (13.1–13.8)
Women 4.8 (4.6–4.9)* 2073 (2024–2127)* 91 (88–93) 88 (84–92)* 36 (34–37) 2.8 (2.7–2.9) 10.7 (10.4–11.1)*
Meat50 Men 5.6 (5.5–5.7)* 2976 (2908–3048) 106 (103–108)* 139 (133–145) 43 (41–44) 3.5 (3.4–3.7) 13.0 (12.7–13.4)*
Women 4.4 (4.3–4.5)* 2191(2140-2250) 81 (79–83)* 117 (112–122) 33 (32–35) 2.7 (2.6–2.8) 10.8 (10.5–11.2)*
Meat75 Men 5.1 (5.0–5.2)* 2909 (2839–2978)* 99 (96–101)* 139 (133–145) 41 (40–43)* 3.5 (3.3–3.6) 12.5 (12.1–12.9)*
Women 4.0 (3.9–4.1)* 2143 (2092–2202)* 76 (74–78)* 117 (112–122) 32 (31–34)* 2.6 (2.5–2.7) 10.4 (10.1–10.8)*
Combi50b Men 5.3 (5.1–5.4)* 2809 (2745–2878)* 104 (101–106)* 125 (120–130)* 41 (40–43)* 3.5 (3.4–3.6) 12.7 (12.4–13.1)*
Women 4.1 (4.1–4.2)* 2114 (2065–2171)* 80 (78–82)* 106 (102–111)* 32 (31–33)* 2.6 (2.5–2.7) 10.5 (10.2–10.8)*
Combimaxc Men 4.4 (4.3–4.5)* 2494 (2430–2556)* 95 (93–97)* 105 (100–110)* 39 (38–41)* 3.4 (3.2–3.5)* 11.7 (11.4–12.1)*
Women 3.5 (3.4–3.6)* 1934 (1885–1988)* 75 (72–77)* 89 (85–92)* 31 (30–32)* 2.5 (2.5–2.6)* 9.6 (9.3–9.9)*
  1. GHG greenhouse gas, CI confidence interval, SFA saturated fatty acids
  2. The 95% confidence intervals are based on 1000 bootstrap samples
  3. aExcluding added sodium during cooking or at the table
  4. bCombi50 combines scenario cheese, water50 and meat50
  5. cCombimax combines scenario cheese, water100 and meat75
  6. *Significantly different from the reference based on the 95%-CI around the mean point estimate