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Table 2 Percentage Distribution of women by Experienced Violence types

From: Spousal age difference and associated predictors of intimate partner violence in Nigeria

Background IPV χ2-value Emotional χ2-value Physical χ2-value Sexual χ2-value
Variables   (p-value) Violence (p-value) Violence (p-value) Violence (p-value)
Total 23.5 (1589)   18.0 (1218)   13.5 (912)   4.7 (318)  
Number of living children 89.4a   64.4a   63.2a   6.4
 None 12.0 (96) (< 0.001) 9.4 (75) (< 0.001) 5.9 (47) (< 0.001) 3.5 (28) (0.094)
 1–2 22.2 (561)   17.1 (431)   12.3 (310)   4.3 (108)  
 3–4 28.3 (585)   22.0 (455)   16.4 (338)   5.1 (106)  
 5+ 25.2 (347)   18.6 (257)   15.7 (217)   5.5 (76)  
Residence   1.89   0.864   3.089   21.8a
 Urban 24.5 (576) (0.169) 18.6 (438) (0.353) 14.5 (341) (0.079) 3.1 (72) (< 0.001)
 Rural 23.0 (1013)   17.7 (780)   12.9 (571)   5.6 (246)  
Ethnicity   367.5a   242.9a   304.7a   95.5a
 Hausa/Fulani 11.4 (291) (< 0.001) 9.4 (241) (< 0.001) 4.4 (112) (< 0.001) 2.8 (71) (< 0.001)
Igbo 28.0 (161)   24.0 (138)   15.3 (88)   4.3 (25)  
 Yoruba 24.5 (221)   16.2 (146)   17.2 (155)   1.4 (13)  
 Others 33.5 (916)   25.3 (693)   20.4 (557)   7.6 (209)  
Religion   297.5a   191.3a   359.7a   11.3b
 Christian 33.8 (952) (< 0.001) 25.4 (715) (< 0.001) 22.6 (635) (< 0.001) 5.7 (161) (0.004)
 Muslims 15.8 (605)   12.4 (475)   6.6 (254)   4.0 (153)  
 Others 28.8 (32)   25.2 (28)   20.7 (23)   3.6 (4)  
Household wealth 20.1a   5.68   20.6a   20.5a
 Poor 20.8 (595) (< 0.001) 16.8 (480) (0.058) 11.3 (323) (< 0.001) 5.6 (161) (< 0.001)
 Middle 25.8 (313)   19.6 (238)   15.4 (187)   5.7 (69)  
 Rich 25.3 (681)   18.6 (500)   14.9 (402)   3.3 (88)  
Education   198.4a   114.8a   246.7a   19.5a
 None 16.0 (467) (< 0.001) 12.8 (374) (< 0.001) 7.1 (206) (< 0.001) 4.0 (116) (< 0.001)
 Primary 32.5 (439)   23.9 (323)   21.9 (296)   6.7 (91)  
 Secondary 29.6 (581)   22.5 (441)   18.8 (368)   4.8 (95)  
 Higher 19.0 (102)   14.9 (80)   7.8 (42)   3.0 (16)  
Marriage type   0.672   0.616   0.969   0.698
 Monogamy 23.7 (1292) (0.412) 18.1 (990) (0.432) 13.6 (745) (0.325) 4.6 (251) (0.403)
 Polygamy 22.6 (285)   17.2 (217)   12.6 (159)   5.1 (65)  
Marital Duration 30.7a   23.4a   24.2a   2.8
 0–4 19.0 (336) (< 0.001) 14.7 (260) (< 0.001) 10.1 (178) (< 0.001) 4.1 (73) (0.425)
 5–9 25.8 (412)   20.4 (327)   14.7 (235)   4.5 (72)  
 10–14 26.2 (394)   19.9 (299)   14.7 (222)   5.2 (79)  
 15+ 23.7 (447)   17.6 (332)   14.7 (277)   5.0 (94)  
Husband drinking alcohol 403.8a   309.7a   502.6a   33.6
 No 18.5 (1027) (< 0.001) 14.1 (781) (< 0.001) 9.1 (501) (< 0.001) 4.0 (221) (< 0.001)
 Yes 45.4 (560)   35.4 (437)   33.2 (409)   7.9 (97)  
Husband’s Education 159.3a   89.9a   184.7a   8.7c
 None 15.2 (343) (< 0.001) 12.3 (278) (< 0.001) 6.5 (146) (< 0.001) 4.0 (90) (0.033)
 Primary 30.6 (390)   23.1 (295)   19.6 (250)   6.1 (78)  
 Secondary 28.9 (623)   21.4 (462)   18.3 (395)   4.7 (102)  
 Higher 21.8 (223)   17.3 (177)   11.2 (114)   4.3 (44)  
Number of marital union 3.133   2.369   2.23a   7.0b
 1 23.0 (1102) (0.077) 17.7 (845) (0.124) 13.1 (629) (0.136) 4.3 (207) 0.008
 2+ 25.1 (471)   19.3 (362)   14.5 (273)   5.9 (110)  
Empowerment   28.6a   16.7a   20.7a   0.611
 Low 21.0 (516) (< 0.001) 16.1 (397) (< 0.001) 12.1 (299) (< 0.001) 4.3 (106) (0.434)
 High 28.1 (486)   21.1 (364)   17.1 (296)   3.8 (66)  
  1. IPV Intimate partner violence
  2. aSignificant at 0.1%; bSignificant at 1.0%; cSignificant at 5.0%