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Table 3 Crude and adjusted regression coefficients of the association of parity and body composition outcomes

From: Is there a causal effect of parity on body composition: a birth cohort study

  Body mass index (kg/m2) Waist circumference (cm) Fat mass (%)
Parity Women Men Women Men Women Men
  Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusted a Unadjusted Adjusteda
Parity
 0 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 1 1.01 (0.29–1.73) 0.68 (−0.06–1.43) 0.55 (− 0.01–1.10) 0.77 (0.21–1.33) 2.56 (1.12–3.99) 1.79 (0.30–3.28) 0.79 (− 0.51–2.10) 1.35 (0.04–2.66) 1.12 (0.07–2.16) 1.19 (0.11–2.27) −0.76 (− 1.74–0.22) −0.19 (− 1.16–0.78)
 2 1.42 (0.60–2.23) 1.00 (0.15–1.86) 0.46 (− 0.25–1.17) 0.83 (0.11–1.55) 3.77 (2.14–5.40) 2.73 (1.01–4.45) 0.54 (− 1.14–2.21) 1.48 (− 0.21–3.16) 0.50 (− 0.69–1.69) 0.69 (−0.56–1.94) −0.75 (− 2.01–0.51) 0.12 (− 1.13–1.37)
 3 1.71 (0.65–2.78) 1.27 (0.15–2.38) −0.18 (− 1.41–1.05) 0.40 (− 0.84–1.64) 4.61 (2.48–6.74) 3.27 (1.03–5.50) − 0.34 (− 3.24–2.54) 1.12 (− 1.77–4.02) − 0.25 (− 1.81–1.32) 0.22 (− 1.42–1.86) −2.43 (− 4.59- -0.26) −1.03 (− 3.16–1.11)
 ≥4 2.49 (1.34–3.64) 2.04 (0.84–3.24) 1.30 (− 0.55–3.16) 1.88 (0.03–3.73) 6.09 (3.80–8.39) 4.83 (2.43–7.24) 2.03 (− 2.32–6.38) 3.41 (− 0.91–7.73) 1.00 (− 0.66–2.67) 1.47 (− 0.27–3.21) − 1.42 (− 4.72–1.87) − 0.03 (− 3.25–3.18)
p value < 0.001 0.008 0.197 0.020 < 0.001 0.000 0.673 0.147 0.201 0.187 0.144 0.891
p linear trend < 0.001 < 0.001 0.060 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.275 0.025 0.320 0.266 0.022 0.681
At least one livebirth
 No Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes 1.39 (0.78–2.00) 0.96 (0.30–1.62) 0.49 (0.01–0.97) 0.79 (0.29–1.29) 3.60 (2.38–4.82) 2.50 (1.18–3.82) 0.67 (−0.46–1.80) 1.43 (0.27–2.59) 0.74 (− 0.14–1.63) 0.97 (0.01–1.93) −0.91 (−1.76--0.07) −0.16 (− 1.02–0.69)
p value < 0.001 0.004 0.047 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.246 0.015 0.101 0.047 0.034 0.712
  1. aAdjusted to maternal schooling, family income, skin color, occupational status, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and consumption of processed and ultraprocessed foods