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Table 2 Parity according to socioeconomic and behavioral variables

From: Is there a causal effect of parity on body composition: a birth cohort study

Characteristics Women – Parity p value
0 (n = 534) 1 (n = 494) 2 (n = 319) 3 (n = 149) ≥4 (n = 124)
Maternal schooling – years
 0–4 20 32 41 44 44 < 0.001
 5–8 38 48 43 46 43  
 9–11 14 11 9 5 11  
  ≥ 12 28 9 7 5 2  
Family income – minimum wages
 0–1 4 7 13 13 22 < 0.001
 1.001–3 23 38 42 52 55  
 3.001–5 23 25 26 20 14  
  > 5 50 30 19 15 9  
Skin color
 White 84 77 74 70 71 < 0.001
 Black 11 17 18 19 16  
 Brown 3 4 4 5 10  
 Yellow/Indigenous 2 2 4 6 3  
Employed 84 79 71 69 61 < 0.001
Alcohol consumers 60 52 48 50 48 0.004
Ever smoked 28 39 44 55 57 < 0.001
Physically active 56 47 48 48 51 0.026
Daily ultraprocessed and processed foods consumption – cal, mean (sd) 699 (545) 785 (478) 881 (685) 878 (626) 948 (673) < 0.001
  Men – Parity  
0 (n = 799) 1 (n = 508) 2 (n = 248) 3 (n = 69) ≥4 (n = 29)  
Maternal schooling – years
 0–4 25 33 42 54 45 < 0.001
 5–8 43 47 43 38 48  
 9–11 13 10 10 1 7  
  ≥ 12 19 10 5 7 0  
Family income – minimum wages
 0–1 4 3 5 4 3 < 0.001
 1.001–3 27 34 39 49 45  
 3.001–5 26 31 30 28 45  
  > 5 43 32 26 19 7  
Skin color
 White 78 73 73 64 69 0.063
 Black 14 17 19 17 14  
 Brown 4 6 6 13 14  
 Yellow/Indigenous 3 4 2 6 3  
Employed 91 96 96 99 100 < 0.001
Alcohol consumption 74 74 75 70 69 0.873
Ever smoked 38 45 47 58 55 0.001
Physically active 62 57 56 67 59 0.203
Daily ultraprocessed and processed foods consumption – cal, mean (sd) 793 (592) 936 (845) 1024 (889) 989 (1099) 1044 (574) < 0.001
  1. sd standard deviation