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Table 2 Coding tree

From: Theorizing the complexity of HIV disclosure in vulnerable populations: a grounded theory study

Categories Broader codes Codes
Social stigma Socio-cultural beliefs Sexual taboo; Cultural misbeliefs
Misconception Wrong ideas about mode of HIV transmission; Wrong perceptions about people living with HIV (PLHA); Criminalization of HIV; Perceived similarity between HIV and leprosy
Social curiosity Social attributes of HIV; Strategies for suspicion
Discrimination Exclusion Exclusion in the family; Peer group exclusion; Social exclusion, Children drop out from school,
Verbal/ physicial assualt Said bad words; Teasing; Being blamed for transmitting HIV; Women beaten by their husband’s
Denial from love and care Relationship break up; Left to die without care; Denial from health care
Cultural discrimination Regarded impure; Cultural exclusion; No cremation rituals followed
Negative emotions Fear Fear of discrimination; Fear of forced disclosure; Fear of discrimination to family members; Fear of losing respect
Shame Ashamed of being HIV infected; Regarding oneself as a bad person
Mistrust Lack of trust to family members; Lack of trust to health workers
Public health initiatives Health care access HIV-related health services; General health services for PLHA
Incentives Incentives for testing for general population; Incentives for PLHA; Social support for PLHA
Involvement Community developmental; Community organizations; HIV-related committees; Political groups; Health service delivery; Income generation
Mediating factors Relationship with health workers Trust; Adherence; No discrimination by health workers; Health workers helping with disclosure
Knowledge Availability of treatment; Mode of transmission; Benefits of disclosure; Negative consequences of non-disclosure
Perceived income Jobs and better positions; Access to loans; Incentives
Perceived social support Care during illnesses; Perceived solidarity; Children taken care by others after the death; Help and support
Empowerment Political empowerment Representation in political parties; Inclusion in developmental works; Representation in school management committee; Formation of organizations and committees
Economic Empowerment Jobs; Access to loans; Incentives; Involved in private business and farms
Social empowerment Social networking; Identity; Community organizing; Fighting against discrimination; Normalization of HIV; Peer support
Personal empowerment Reduced mental stress; Self care; Self determination; Introducing oneself as an HIV infected person; Activism
Mechanism of disclosure Disclosure status Self disclosure; Disclosure with consent; Forced disclosure
Disclosure status Undisclosed; Disclosed to health workers; Disclosed to family members; Disclosed to general public
Disclosure avoidance behavior Lying; Hinting; Avoiding contacts with people living with HIV; Do not seek health care; Seeking traditional healers; People secretly taking medicines; Late testing