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Table 3 The risk factors associated with patient and health care system delay in TB patients in Tabriz, Iran 2012-2014 (N = 173)

From: The identification of risk factors associated with patient and healthcare system delays in the treatment of tuberculosis in Tabriz, Iran

  Number (%) Patient delaya Health care system delayb
Factors   N (%)c Crude OR (95% CI) N (%)c Crude OR (95% CI)
Gender
 Female 85 (49.1) 33 (38.8) 1 48 (56.5) 1
 Male 88 (50.9) 53 (60.2) 2.28 (1.29 to 4.39)* 37 (42.0) 0.55 (0.30 to 1.022)
Age group
 ≤ 30 41 (23.7) 16 (39) 1 21 (51.2) 1
 > 30 132 (76.3) 70 (53) 1.76 (0.86 to 3.60) 64 (48.5) 1.11 (0.55 to 2.24)
Education
 Illiterate/W&Rd † 79 (45.7) 40 (50.6) 1 41 (51.9) 1
 Primary-Secondary 55 (31.8) 29 (52.7) 1.08 (0.54 to 2.16) 23 (41.8) 0.66 (0.33 to 1.33)
 University/Higher 39 (22.5) 17 (43.6) 0.75 (0.348 to 1.63) 21 (53.8) 1.08 (0.501 to 2.333)
Occupation
 Unemployed 84 (48.6) 40 (47.8) 1 47 (56.0) 1
 Employed 19 (11.0) 16 (84.2) 5.86 (1.59 to 21.64) * 8 (42.1) 0.57 (0.20 to 1.56)
 Student 14 (8.1) 2 (14.3) 0.18 (0.03 to 0.87) * 11 (78.6) 2.88 (0.75 to 11.10)
 Retired 36 (20.8) 18 (15.0) 1.10 (0.50 to 2.40) 12 (33.3) 0.39 (0.17 to 0.89) *
 Farmer 20 (11.6) 10 (50.0) 1.10 (0.415 to 2.91) 7 (35.0) 0.42 (0.154 to 1.16)
Marital status
 Married 106 (61.2) 52 (49.5) 1 47 (44.3) 1
 Single 29 (16.8) 14 (48.3) 0.96 (0.42 to 2.20) 15 (51.7) 1.34 (0.59 to 3.06)
 Divorced 6 (3.5) 5 (83.3) 5.19 (0.58 to 45.95) 3 (50.0) 1.25 (0.24 to 6.50)
 Widow/death 32 (18.5) 15 (46.9) 0.91 (0.41 to 2.02) 20 (62.5) 2.09 (0.92 to 4.71)
Smoking
 Never 70 (40.5) 3 (45.7) 1 34 (48.6) 1
 Current 75 (43.4) 39 (52.0) 1.28 (0.67 to 2.47) 38 (50.7) 1.08 (0.56 to 2.08)
 Ex-smoker 28 (16.2) 15 (53.6) 1.37 (0.56 to 3.30) 13 (46.4) 0.91 (0.38 to 2.208)
Household size
 < =3 people 67 (38.7) 38 (56.7) 1 30 (44.8) 1
 > 3 people 106 (61.3) 48 (45.3) 1.58 (0.85 to 2.93) 55 (51.9) 0.75 (0.40 to 1.38)
History of TB contact
 Yes 35 (20.2) 13 (37.1) 1 13 (37.1) 1
 No 138 (79.8) 73 (52.1) 1.901 (0.88 to 4.07) 72 (52.2) 1.84 (0.86 to 3.95)
First misdiagnosis
Cold or viral infection
 No 71 (41.0) 39 (54.9) 1 26 (35.2) 1
 Yes 102 (59.0) 47 (46.1) 1.42 (0.77 to 2.62) 60 (58.8) 2.61 (1.40 to 4.91)*
Asthma
 No 160 (92.5) 80 (50.0) 1 77 (48.1) 1
 Yes 13 (7.5) 6 (46.2) 1.16 (0.37 to 3.62) 8 (51.5) 0.58 (0.18 to 1.84)
COPD
 No 163 (94.2) 82 (50.3) 1 80 (49.1) 1
 Yes 10 (5.8) 4 (40.0) 1.51 (0.41 to 5.58) 5 (50.0) 0.96 (0.26 to 3.45)
The number of attending health care facilities
 < 3 65 (41.4) 36 (55.4) 1 15 (18.1) 1
 ≥ 3 93 (58.6) 37 (50.7) 0.54 (0.28 to 1.03) 68 (81.9) 9.44 (4.50 to 19.82)**
Center of first contact
 Traditional healer 6 (3.5) 3 (50) 1 4 (66.7) 1
 Public 77 (44.5) 51 (66.2) 2.64 (1.01 to 6.85)* 36 (46.8) 0.43 (0.7 to 2.5)
 Private 90 (52.0) 32 (35.6) 0.55 (0.10 to 2.89) 45 (50.0) 0.50 (0.08 to 2.8)
Level of health care facilities
 PHCe† 83 (48.0) 44 (53.0) 1 43 (51.8) 1
 SHCf 71 (41.0) 34 (47.9) 0.81 (0.43 to 1.53) 31 (43.7) 0.72 (0.38 to 1.36)
 THCg 19 (11.0) 8 (42.1) 0.64 (0.23 to 1.76) 11 (57.9) 1.27 (0.46 to 3.50)
Financial affordability for diagnostic tests
 Yes 66 (38.2) 39 (59.1) 1 20 (30.3) 1
 No 107 (61.8) 47 (43.1) 0.54 (0.29 to 1.01) 65 (60.7) 3.56 (1.85 to 6.83)**
  1. Reference category, aPatient delay > 13 days, bHealth care system delay> 52 days, cAll percentages are reported within dependent variables (associated risk factors), dWriting and reading, *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.001, ePrimary Health Care, fSecondary Health Care, gTertiary Health care
  2. P-values are based on binomial logistic regression. OR indicates odds ratio, CI confidence interval