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Table 3 Factors associated with wheezing – from bivariate and multivariate analyses

From: Prevalence and associated factors of wheezing illnesses of children aged three to five years living in under-served settlements of the Colombo Municipal Council in Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study

  Variables N Unadjusted OR* (95% CI**) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
1 Age 3 up to 4 years 383 0.88 (0.55–1.39) 0.59 0.74 (0.34–1.58) 0.43
2 Male sex 383 1.05 (0.64–1.61) 0.84 1.88 (0.98–3.58) 0.056
3 Low birth weight 383 1.01 (0.53–1.92) 0.96 1.62 (0.66–3.95) 0.29
4 Not exclusively breast fed 383 0.34 (0.05–2.44) 0.27 11.05 (0.89–137.21) 0.06
5 Introduced to formula milk before 6 months 301 0.54 (0.32–0.92) 0.022 0.39 (0.19–0.83) 0.014
6 Ethnicity- Sinhalese 383 0.96 (0.57–1.61) 0.87 0.67 (0.31–1.46) 0.32
7 Having siblings 383 0.93 (0.55–1.58) 0.79 0.88 (0.42–1.87) 0.75
8 Attending preschool 383 0.83 (0.52–1.31) 0.43 1.09 (0.50–2.38) 0.82
9 Food allergy present 383 1.44 (0.75–2.74) 0.26 2.54 (0.92–7.02) 0.07
10 Having eczema 383 1.32 (0.55–3.13) 0.53 0.39 (0.09–1.67) 0.21
11 Food allergy in family 383 1.83 (1.01–3.31) 0.044 1.43 (0.54–3.78) 0.47
12 Eczema in family 383 2.35 (0.85–6.51) 0.08 4.07 (0.87–18.96) 0.07
13 Maternal asthma 383 8.88 (5.26–14.99) p < 0.001 11.21 (5.64–22.29) p < 0.001
14 Paternal asthma 383 6.58 (3.69–11.73) p < 0.001 7.98 (3.64–17.49) p < 0.001
15 Pets at home 383 1.56 (0.85–2.86) 0.14 0.98 (0.43–2.25) 0.97
16 Place of sleep (hardboard/bare floor/mat) 383 1.64 (1.005–2.688) 0.047 1.17 (0.57–2.42) 0.66
17 Unsatisfactory ventilation in sleeping area 383 2.42 (1.49–3.85) p < 0.001 4.38 (2.16–8.89) p < 0.001
18 Use of bed nets 383 1.71 (1.008–2.904) 0.045 1.25 (0.58–2.65) 0.57
19 Play with soft toys 383 2.14 (1.33–3.43) 0.001 2.65 (1.35–5.18) 0.004
20 Tendency of mould formation 383 2.20 (1.37–3.52) 0.001 1.54 (0.79–2.99) 0.19
21 Use of mosquito coils 383 2.38 (1.46–3.88) p < 0.001 1.95 (0.95–4.03) 0.07
22 Daily light incense sticks 383 0.91 (0.56–1.43) 0.65 0.72 (0.37–1.39) 0.33
23 Place of cooking combined with living area 383 2.25 (1.42–3.69) p = 0.001 2.75 (1.09–6.95) 0.03
24 Unclean fuel usage 378 1.69 (1.06–2.71) 0.027 1.11 (0.56–2.18) 0.77
25 Unsatisfactory ventilation in kitchen 370 1.60 (1.002–2.572) 0.050 1.25 (0.67–1.94) 0.16
26 Father ever smoked 383 1.64 (1.02–2.62) 0.038 1.09 (0.55–2.15) 0.80
27 Higher exposure to vehicle emissions 383 1.19 (0.75–1.90) 0.46 1.17 (0.60–2.27) 0.64
28 Having work place/industry 383 1.87(1.16–3.01) 0.010 1.27 (0.66–2.45) 0.47
  1. Note: *OR Odds ratio
  2. **CI Confidence Intervals
  3. Significant p values are in italic