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Table 3 Future Metrics

From: The Canadian Urban Environmental Health Research Consortium – a protocol for building a national environmental exposure data platform for integrated analyses of urban form and health

Future Metrics Geographic Extent Spatial Resolution Time Periods Description Ref.
Air Pollution
 Surface concentrations of NO2, SO2 and CO National + 7 km 2016 onward New satellite and sensor, TropOMI, upgrading the current OMI measurements to provide increased spatial resolution with daily global coverage.  
 Surface concentrations of PM2.5   2 km 2016 onward GOES-R geostationary satellite observing aerosol optical depth on an hourly or better time resolution during daylight hours. [72]
 Surface concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, SO2 National + 5+ km planned for 2019 onward New geostationary satellite and sensor, TEMPO, upgrading the current OMI measurements and enhancing TropOMI with hourly or better time resolution during daylight hours; similar satellites planned for Europe (Sentinel-4) and Asia (GEMS). [69,70,71]
 Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5 and NO2 National (and city-specific) 10 km Daily, monthly and annual starting in 2000 Operational forecast chemical transport model (GEM-MACH) with objective analysis for NO2, O3 and PM2.5 produced by Environment and Climate Change Canada; For NO2, additional chemical transport model (CTM) runs are being combined with local LUR models (‘hybrid approach’) by Health Canada. Where the LUR and CTM are combined the spatial resolution is ~50 m.  
 Ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 National <100 m Annual National empirical models using surface observations and multiple predictors from diverse sources such as satellites, CTMs, GIS, transportation models.  
Noise Pollution
 A-weighted sound pressure level and related summary metrics National <100 m 2017, with plans to adjust for historical estimates New LUR model(s) to be developed based upon future noise measurements in selected Canadian cities.  
Greenness
 Metrics reflecting greenness accessibility and type (land use and land cover) National Neighbourhood-level To be determined Metrics to be identified by Greenness Working Group, and may include seasonal NDVI, measures of tree cover/canopy, tree species inventories at city scale, etc. and data from Sentinel-2 or Planet satellites.  
Climate and Weather
 Local Climate Zones National + Varies depending on landuse/cover 2017 with plans to adjust for historical estimates Method to be developed and evaluated for using image classification and deep machine learning to map local climate zones based on building type, height, and vegetation. [62,63,64]
 Long term climate metrics National + 32 km 1979 to present Derived from Climate Forecast System Reananlysis data, metrics to be identified by Weather and Climate Working Group. [44]
 Long term climate metrics National + 60 km 1958 to 2012 Derived from Japanese 55-year reanalysis, metrics to be identified by Weather and Climate Working Group. [45]
 Long term climate metrics Regional (British Columbia) 800 m Climate normal 30 year periods (1971–2000 and 1981–2010) Derived from PRISM data, metrics to be identified by Weather and Climate Working Group. [46]
Neighbourhood Factors
 Walkability National   To be determined New metrics to be developed reflecting age-specific and season-specific patterns and may consider landuse and landcover data; Representativeness of physical activity to be evaluated with surveys, GPS and accelerometry.  
 Food environment National    New metrics to be developed using a variety of information sources including GIS databases, ground-truth observations and Google StreetView.  
Transportation
 Car and truck volumes and traff emissions (CO, PM2.5, NOx, BC, selected VOCs) Regional Road segment 2016 - Halifax; 2006, 2011 - Montreal, Winnipeg; 1986, 2001, 2006 and 2011 - Toronto, Hamilton Method development to be extended to other Canadian cities, and key input data for noise and air quality models.