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Table 1 Distribution of participants according to age at baseline, predictor variables and outcome status, Finland

From: Adolescent reserve capacity, socioeconomic status and school achievement as predictors of mortality in Finland - a longitudinal study

Age at baseline and predictor variables in adolescence Total population (n = 41,833) Number of Deaths (n = 499)
Boys (n = 19,509) Girls (n = 22,324) Boys (n = 362) Girls (n = 137)
No. % No. % No. % No. %
Age at baseline (years)
 12 1976 10.1 1976 8.9 39 10.8 12 8.8
 14 6011 30.8 6575 29.4 97 26.8 34 24.8
 16 6285 32.2 7300 32.7 135 37.3 43 31.4
 18 5237 26.9 6473 29.0 91 25.1 48 35.0
Family SES (parents’ education)
 Higher education 3261 16.7 3573 16.0 35 9.7 19 13.9
 Secondary education 11,818 60.6 13,530 60.6 211 58.3 77 56.2
 Basic or lower 4425 22.7 5210 23.3 116 32.0 41 29.9
 No data 5 0.0 11 0.1 0 0.0 0 0.0
Perceived health
 Chronic disease
  No 17,791 91.2 20,134 90.2 312 86.2 119 86.9
  Yes 1718 8.8 2190 9.8 50 13.8 18 13.1
 Perceived stress symptoms
  None 9897 50.7 7144 32.0 156 43.1 35 25.5
  1/week 4181 21.4 5129 23.0 77 21.3 22 16.1
  2–3/week 3937 20.2 6442 28.9 77 21.3 47 34.3
  4–8/week 1494 7.7 3609 16.1 52 14.3 33 24.1
 Self-rated health
  Very good 7465 38.3 6233 27.9 117 32.3 27 19.7
  Average or good 11,637 59.6 15,568 69.7 229 63.3 99 72.3
  Poor 328 1.7 458 2.1 13 3.6 11 8.0
  No data 79 0.4 65 0.3 3 0.8 0 0.0
Health-promoting behaviour
 Physical activity
  Very active efficient exerciser 5114 26.2 3930 17.6 84 23.2 13 9.5
  Active efficient exerciser 6017 30.9 6623 29.7 105 29.0 44 32.1
  Occasional/low efficient exerciser 4645 23.8 7224 32.3 78 21.5 44 32.1
  Does not exercise 3671 18.8 4503 20.2 93 25.7 36 26.3
  No data 62 0.3 44 0.2 2 0.6 0 0.0
 Regular tooth brushing
  Several times/day 3982 20.4 10,831 48.5 53 14.6 69 50.4
  About once/day 9737 49.9 9689 43.4 161 44.5 54 39.4
  About 1–5 times/week or less 5689 29.2 1754 7.9 145 40.1 14 10.2
  No data 101 0.5 50 0.2 3 0.8 0 0.0
Social support
 Nuclear family (with both parents)
  Yes 15,366 78.8 17,040 76.3 250 69.1 96 70.1
  No 4022 20.6 5173 23.2 106 29.3 40 19.2
  No data 121 0.6 111 0.5 6 1.6 1 0.7
 Talking about issues to father
  Easy 10,421 53.4 8157 36.6 156 43.1 38 27.7
  Difficult 6010 30.8 8470 37.9 115 31.8 49 35.8
  Very difficult/No father 2571 13.2 5314 23.8 80 22.1 47 34.3
  No data 507 2.6 383 1.7 11 3.0 3 2.2
 Talking about issues to mother
  Easy 13,705 70.3 16,235 72.7 226 62.4 87 63.5
  Difficult 4429 22.7 4743 21.2 100 27.6 32 23.4
  Very difficult/No mother 1037 5.3 1175 5.3 31 8.6 16 11.6
  No data 338 1.7 171 0.8 5 1.4 2 1.5
 Talking about issues to friends
  Easy 14,764 75.7 20,078 89.9 258 71.3 120 87.6
  Difficult 3558 18.2 1772 7.9 69 19.0 14 10.2
  Very difficult/No friends 762 3.9 288 1.3 26 7.2 1 0.7
  No data 425 2.2 186 0.9 9 2.5 2 1.5
School achievement
 Highest 3217 16.5 5481 24.6 29 8.0 27 19.7
 2nd highest 5563 28.5 7590 34.0 82 22.6 37 27.0
 2nd lowest 6993 35.8 6482 29.0 148 40.9 34 24.8
 Lowest 3400 17.9 2577 11.5 101 27.9 37 27.0
 No data 246 1.3 194 0.9 2 0.6 2 1.5