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Table 5 Associations estimated between categorical Walk Score and cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusted for individual variables, neighborhood variables and risk factors related to cardiometabolic outcomes

From: Neighborhood walk score and selected Cardiometabolic factors in the French RECORD cohort study

Cardiometabolic outcomes Walker’s Paradise Very Walkable Somewhat Walkable Very/Car-Dependent
Continuous outcomes   β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Body Mass Index Ref +0.30 + 0.04 to +0.55 +0.11 -0.26 to +0.48 +0.88 + 0.18 to +1.59
Wait circumference Ref +0.75 + 0.06 to +1.45 +0.44 -0.55 to +1.42 +2.75 + 0.86 to +4.63
Systolic blood pressure Ref +0.47 -0.53 to +1.48 +0.77 -0.68 to +2.21 +1.62 -1.18 to +4.43
Diastolic Blood pressure Ref +0.39 -0.20 to +0.97 +0.61 -0.22 to +1.45 +1.84 + 0.21 to +3.46
Resting heart rate Ref +0.58 -0.04 to +1.20 +0.85 -0.04 to +1.74 +0.68 -1.07 to +2.42
Recreational walkinga Ref −14.46 -25.51 to −3.42 −26.96 -42.84 to −11.08 −44.96 -75.91 to −14.01
Categorical outcomes   PR 95% CI PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
Obese Ref 1.23 1.04 to 1.46 1.02 0.80 to 1.30 1.66 1.09 to 2.52
Hypertension Ref 0.99 0.91 to 1.07 1.00 0.89 to 1.12 1.10 0.87 to 1.39
Resting heart rate Ref 1.02 0.99 to 1.04 1.02 0.98 to 1.07 1.04 0.96 to 1.12
Recreational walkinga Ref 0.96 0.92 to 1.01 0.93 0.87 to 0.99 0.93 0.82 to 1.06
  1. Multilevel linear regression and modified Poisson regression models were estimated after excluding individuals with missing values for Walk Score, for census block group neighborhoods, and for each cardiometabolic outcome. These models estimated associations between categorical Walk Score and continuous and categorical cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusted for individual, neighborhood factors, and risk factors of these cardiometabolic outcomes, such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and the quantitative score of adherence to Mediterranean diet
  2. aThese models were estimated after adjusting for individual and neighborhood variables