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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios of over-the-counter (OTC) drug use by price category

From: Prices of over-the-counter drugs used by 15-year-old adolescents in Germany and their association with socioeconomic background

  Adjusted odds ratio of utilization (and 95% confidence interval)
All OTC drugs OTC drugs ≥ €10 OTC drugs ≥ €25
Gender
 Male Reference Reference Reference
 Female 1.52*** (1.34–1.73) 1.27* (1.00–1.61) 0.90 (0.54–1.49)
Study area
 Munich Reference Reference Reference
 Leipzig 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 0.85 (0.55–1.32) 0.49 (0.17–1.42)
 Bad Honnef 1.09 (0.79–1.50) 1.00 (0.55–1.81) 0.32 (0.04–2.35)
 Wesel 0.93 (0.81–1.08) 0.72* (0.54–0.97) 0.50* (0.26–0.96)
Maternal educational level
 Low Reference Reference Reference
 Medium 1.35* (1.06–1.72) 1.31 (0.77–2.23) 0.70 (0.27–1.81)
 High 1.35* (1.05–1.73) 1.29 (0.75–2.20) 0.56 (0.21–1.50)
Paternal educational level
 Low Reference Reference Reference
 Medium 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 1.43 (0.91–2.25) 3.20* (1.11–9.21)
 High 1.23* (1.01–1.50) 2.00** (1.32–3.04) 3.02* (1.07–8.53)
Household income
 Low Reference Reference Reference
 Medium 1.15 (0.94–1.42) 1.21 (0.80–1.81) 0.69 (0.30–1.58)
 High 1.07 (0.86–1.33) 0.85 (0.56–1.31) 0.73 (0.32–1.67)
Chronic disease
 No Reference Reference Reference
 Yes 1.66*** (1.44–1.90) 1.87*** (1.46–2.38) 1.95* (1.16–3.28)
  1. Significant at *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.0001