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Table 4 Age-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors by sex and HbA1c-defined diabetes status among adults aged 20 years or older, 1988–2014a

From: Trends in cardiovascular risk factors among U.S. men and women with and without diabetes, 1988–2014

Risk actors by sex and diabetes status NHANES 1988–1994 NHANES 1999–2002 NHANES 2003–2006 NHANES 2007–2010 NHANES 2011–2014 P Value for Linear Trend, 1988–1994 to 2011-2014b P Value for Comparison of NHANES 2011–2014 and NHANES 1988–1994
Smoking (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 32.64 (30.48–34.80) 22.96 (20.64–25.27) 23.63 (21.42–25.83) 20.35 (18.10–22.61) 18.74 (15.86–21.63) <.0001 −13.90 (−17.50 to −10.30)
 Diabetic Men 20.48 (15.50–25.46) 20.08 (15.12–25.04) 18.89 (13.38–24.41) 18.76 (14.97–22.55) 18.23 (10.70–25.75) 0.1560 −2.25 (−11.29 to 6.78)
 Non-diabetic Women 25.32 (23.55–27.09) 18.88 (16.96–20.81) 18.86 (16.90–20.83) 16.25 (14.34–18.16) 13.92 (11.95–15.90) <.0001 −11.40 (−14.05 to −8.75)
 Diabetic Women 19.44 (14.95–23.93) 9.57 (6.33–12.81) 11.00 (6.85–15.15) 14.11 (10.27–17.94) 13.21 (7.83–18.59) 0.0501 −6.23 (−13.25 to 0.78)
Use of antihypertensive medications (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 9.03 (7.74–10.32) 15.16 (13.48–16.84) 20.02 (18.28–21.76) 21.07 (18.81–23.32) 20.98 (17.59–24.38) <.0001 11.95 (8.33 to 15.58)
 Diabetic Men 31.32 (25.48–37.16) 45.67 (39.25–52.08) 55.49 (51.12–59.86) 54.54 (49.08–60.00) 62.19 (53.98–70.39) <.0001 30.87 (20.79 to 40.95)
 Non-diabetic Women 12.45 (11.50–13.40) 19.87 (17.93–21.82) 21.64 (19.74–23.55) 23.09 (21.56–24.63) 23.90 (20.51–27.28) <.0001 11.45 (7.93 to 14.96)
 Diabetic Women 41.68 (36.37–46.99) 59.86 (53.44–66.28) 65.60 (60.13–71.08) 70.62 (66.68–74.57) 64.53 (59.03–70.03) <.0001 22.85 (15.20 to 30.50)
Use of Lipid-Lowering Medications (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 2.13 (1.62–2.64) 8.38 (7.16–9.61) 11.20 (9.91–12.50) 13.24 (11.70–14.79) 14.00 (11.12–16.88) <.0001 11.87 (8.94 to 14.79)
 Diabetic Men 9.56 (5.86–13.27) 28.33 (24.28–32.39) 42.83 (36.78–48.88) 45.50 (42.02–48.98) 49.15 (41.97–56.33) <.0001 39.59 (31.50 to 47.67)
 Non-diabetic Women 2.97 (2.28–3.66) 6.69 (5.75–7.63) 10.32 (8.75–11.89) 12.29 (11.10–13.47) 14.14 (11.19–17.10) <.0001 11.17 (8.14 to 14.21)
 Diabetic Women 6.43 (4.01–8.86) 26.12 (19.86–32.38) 40.79 (34.63–46.94) 45.02 (39.76–50.28) 51.72 (43.41–60.03) <.0001 45.29 (36.63 to 53.95)
Prevalence of achieving systolic/diastolic blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 72.00 (69.80–74.20) 72.80 (70.59–75.01) 71.45 (69.66–73.25) 76.39 (74.61–78.17) 76.88 (73.96–79.80) <.0001 4.88 (1.22 to 8.54)
 Diabetic Men 42.84 (35.58–50.10) 52.33 (47.70–56.96) 55.27 (47.10–63.43) 59.69 (55.58–63.81) 55.22 (45.02–65.42) 0.0018 12.38 (−0.15 to 24.91)
 Non-diabetic Women 76.39 (74.34–78.44) 72.04 (70.19–73.90) 75.85 (74.16–77.55) 79.15 (77.42–80.88) 78.49 (76.36–80.62) <.0001 2.10 (−0.85 to 5.06)
 Diabetic Women 39.87 (34.57–45.18) 41.98 (35.16–48.81) 46.74 (41.14–52.34) 57.19 (53.18–61.20) 54.12 (47.65–60.58) <.0001 14.25 (5.88 to 22.61)
Prevalence of achieving LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dL (%)
 Non-diabetic Men 64.69 (62.55–66.83) 64.99 (62.72–67.27) 68.02 (66.23–69.81) 68.82 (67.10–70.54) 68.08 (64.45–71.71) <.0001 3.39 (−0.82 to 7.60)
 Diabetic Men 68.23 (62.30–74.16) 77.81 (71.93–83.69) 78.18 (73.69–82.68) 79.29 (75.22–83.36) 76.98 (70.72–83.25) 0.0014 8.75 (0.12 to 17.39)
 Non-diabetic Women 66.42 (64.60–68.24) 68.06 (66.25–69.87) 70.97 (69.28–72.65) 68.87 (67.41–70.34) 68.01 (64.84–71.18) 0.0016 1.59 (−2.07 to 5.24)
 Diabetic Women 73.26 (67.97–78.55) 79.64 (74.13–85.14) 76.82 (70.86–82.78) 75.59 (71.87–79.32) 75.47 (70.81–80.13) 0.6815 2.21 (−4.85 to 9.26)
Prevalence of achieving HbA1c <7.0% (%)
 Diabetic Men 42.28 (36.06–48.50) 38.10 (33.12–43.08) 43.52 (38.05–48.99) 43.42 (38.21–48.63) 50.58 (43.53–57.63) 0.1042 8.30 (−1.11 to 17.70)
 Diabetic Women 35.97 (29.91–42.02) 38.56 (33.29–43.84) 50.23 (44.08–56.39) 49.31 (44.73–53.89) 50.83 (44.25–57.40) <.0001 14.86 (5.91 to 23.80)
  1. aAll estimates are weighted to be representative of the US noninstitutionalized population. Means were age-standardized by the direct method to the 2000 US Census population using the age categories of 20–39, 40–59 years, and ≥60 years
  2. bApplying the Bonferroni method for adjusting for multiple comparisons for diabetic and non-diabetic men and women, there were 6 implied comparisons and an α = 0.008 (α = 0.05/6) was used