Skip to main content

Table 6 Association between hypertension and year of study (2004/2014), socio-demographic-, behavioural- and metabolic risk factors in 2004 and 2014 combined

From: Changes in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension from 2004 to 2014 among 25-74-year-old citizens in the Yangon Region, Myanmar

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
   pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographic:
 Year 2004 (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  2014 1.49 (1.21-1.82) 0.001* 1.49 (1.22-1.82) <0.001* 1.44 (1.17-1.77) 0.001* 1.28 (0.92-1.78) 0.129 1.22 (0.89-1.68) 0.207
 Age   1.06 (1.05-1.06) <0.001* 1.05 (1.04-1.07) <0.001* 1.06 (1.05-1.07) <0.001* 1.05 (1.04-1.07) <0.001* 1.06 (1.05-1.07) <0.001*
 Location Urban    (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Rural    0.94 (0.72-1.23) 0.629 0.92 (0.69-1.22) 0.535 1.15 (0.83-1.58) 0.385 1.12 (0.79-1.59) 0.496
 Gender Male (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Female 1.09 (0.88-1.35) 0.406 1.10 (0.89-1.36) 0.376 1.24 (0.85-1.81) 0.254 0.85 (0.67-1.08) 0.171 1.05 (0.72-1.53) 0.78
 Education No formal    (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  1-5 years    0.79 (0.49-1.26) 0.304 0.78 (0.49-1.25) 0.293 0.78 (0.46-1.33) 0.35 0.78 (0.46-1.32) 0.346
  6-11 years    0.89 (0.55-1.44) 0.623 0.86 (0.53-1.38) 0.511 0.88 (0.54-1.44) 0.597 0.88 (0.54-1.43) 0.584
  > 11 years    0.65 (0.50-1.44) 0.529 0.80 (0.47-1.36) 0.388 0.75 (0.42-1.32) 0.303 0.73 (0.41-1.29) 0.268
 Ethnicity Bamar    (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Non-Bamar    0.81 (0.68-0.98) 0.030* 0.80 (0.66-0.96) 0.021* 0.81 (0.68-0.98) 0.029* 0.81 (0.68-0.96) 0.017*
Behavioural:
 Tobacco smoking No      (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes      0.67 (0.52-0.88) 0.006*    0.87 (0.74-1.01) 0.061
 Alcohol consumption No      (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes      1.92 (1.33-2.76) 0.001*    2.00 (1.26-3.17) 0.005*
 Low physical activity No      (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes      1.10 (0.81-1.50) 0.517    1.01 (0.81-1.49) 0.532
Metabolic:
 BMI Normal        (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Underweight        0.43 (0.29-0.64) <0.001* 0.42 (0.28-0.64) <0.001*
  Overweight        2.62 (2.17-3.17) <0.001* 2.62 (2.14-3.20) <0.001*
 Diabetes No        (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Yes        1.49 (1.16-1.91) 0.003* 1.50 (1.16-1.93) 0.003*
 Hypercholesterolemia No        (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Yes        1.16 (0.86-1.56) 0.317 1.17 (0.88-1.54) 0.264
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age and gender; Model 2 adjusted for age, gender, location, education and ethnicity; Model 3 adjustment- the behavioural risk factors: smoking, alcohol consumption and low physical activity were added to Model 2; Model 4 adjustment- the metabolic risk factors: BMI, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were added to Model 2; Model 5 included all variables in the table