Skip to main content

Table 5 Association between hypertension and selected socio-demographic-, behavioural- and metabolic risk factors among 25-74-year-old citizens in Yangon region, Myanmar, in 2014

From: Changes in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension from 2004 to 2014 among 25-74-year-old citizens in the Yangon Region, Myanmar

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
   pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value pOR (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographic:
 Age   1.05 (1.04-1.07) <0.001* 1.06 (1.04-1.07) <0.001* 1.05 (1.03-1.07) <0.001* 1.06 (1.04-1.07) <0.001*
 Location Urban (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Rural 0.97 (0.65-1.43) 0.862 0.93 (0.62-1.40) 0.710 1.18 (0.72-1.90) 0.470 1.14 (0.68-1.92) 0.587
 Gender Male (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Female 1.09 (0.82-1.47) 0.505 1.27 (0.71-2.27) 0.382 0.80 (0.58-1.11) 0.163 1.03 (0.58-1.83) 0.900
 Education No formal (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  1-5 years 0.63 (0.30-1.30) 0.184 0.62 (0.31-1.24) 0.154 0.70 (0.31-1.60) 0.364 0.70 (0.32-1.56) 0.344
  6-11 years 0.74 (0.36-1.55) 0.389 0.69 (0.34-1.41) 0.278 0.84 (0.39-1.78) 0.619 0.83 (0.40-1.75) 0.590
  > 11 years 0.71 (0.32-1.60) 0.370 0.65 (0.31-1.37) 0.226 0.69 (0.29-1.64) 0.361 0.67 (0.28-1.59) 0.328
 Ethnicity Bamar (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Non-Bamar 0.76 (0.58-0.99) 0.046* 0.74 (0.56-0.99) 0.045* 0.79 (0.60-1.04) 0.091 0.79 (0.61-1.02) 0.070
Behavioural:
 Tobacco smoking No (Ref)   (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes 0.72 (0.46-1.14) 0.146 0.64 (0.43-0.96) 0.035*    0.83 (0.67-1.04) 0.101
 Alcohol consumption No (Ref)   (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes 1.84 (1.04-3.26) 0.039* 2.04 (1.23-3.38) 0.011*    2.01 (1.09-4.03) 0.030*
 Low physical activity No (Ref)   (Ref)     (Ref)  
  Yes 0.96 (0.65-1.40) 0.833 0.96 (0.68-1.38) 0.826    0.94 (0.66-1.37) 0.751
Metabolic:
 BMI Normal (Ref)     (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Underweight 0.40 (0.22-0.71) 0.006*    0.41 (0.22-0.78) 0.011* 0.41 (0.21-0.80) 0.014*
  Overweight 3.09 (2.43-3.91) <0.001*    2.95 (2.34-3.72) <0.001* 2.93 (2.28-3.78) <0.001*
 Diabetes No (Ref)     (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Yes 1.83 (1.39-2.41) 0.001*    1.47 (1.04-2.07) 0.034* 1.49 (1.05-2.12) 0.029*
 Hypercholesterolemia No (Ref)     (Ref)   (Ref)  
  Yes 1.27 (0.80-2.00) 0.277    1.15 (0.74-1.78) 0.496 1.17 (0.78-1.76) 0.410
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age, location, gender, education and ethnicity; Model 2 adjustment –behavioural risk factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, low physical activity were
  2. added to Model 1; Model 3 adjustment- the metabolic risk factors: BMI, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were added to Model 1; Model 4 included all variables in the table
  3. *p-value ≤0.05 from multivariate logistic regression