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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants by adiposity

From: Waist-to-height ratio is a useful index for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: a secondary data analysis

Variable Total Obese Non-obese P
(N = 1210) (n = 197) (n = 1013)  
Age (years) 15.5 ± 2.8 15.2 ± 3.0 15.6 ± 2.8 0.063
Male, n (%) 594 (49.1) 123 (62.4) 471 (46.5) < 0.001
Anthropometric assessment
 Body weight (kg) 55.5 ± 14.9 74.7 ± 15.5 51.7 ± 11.6 < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.3 ± 4.2 28.3 ± 3.2 19.9 ± 2.7 < 0.001
 Waist (cm) 71.8 ± 10.8 73.5 ± 12.6 71.5 ± 10.4 0.060
 Waist-to-height ratio 0.8 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1 0.123
 Waist-hip ratio 0.45 ± 0.06 0.81 ± 0.08 0.80 ± 0.07 0.236
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 114.2 ± 18.5 115.8 ± 19.5 113.9 ± 18.3 0.208
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 67.9 ± 12.9 68.5 ± 13.9 67.9 ± 13.8 0.503
 Pulse pressure (mmHg) 46.3 ± 14.2 47.2 ± 14.6 46.1 ± 14.1 0.304
Lifestyle history
 Smoking, n (%) 29 (2.4) 6 (3.0) 23 (2.3) 0.515
 Betel nut chewing, n (%) 6 (0.5) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.4) 0.335
Biochemistry data
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.79 ± 0.17 0.77 ± 0.16 0.79 ± 0.17 0.177
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) 90.8 ± 8.6 91.1 ± 7.2 90.7 ± 8.8 0.608
 ALT (mg/dL) 17.0 ± 16.4 18.1 ± 19.8 16.8 ± 19.7 0.336
 AST (mg/dL) 19.1 ± 7.4 19.6 ± 9.6 19.0 ± 6.9 0.328
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.73 ± 1.43 5.71 ± 1.51 5.73 ± 1.42 0.782
 GGT (U/L) 15.2 ± 10.3 16.5 ± 14.3 14.9 ± 9.4 0.063
Lipid profiles
 LDL (mg/dL) 95.5 ± 25.7 95.6 ± 27.4 95.5 ± 25.3 0.957
 VLDL (mg/dL) 15.6 ± 7.7 15.8 ± 7.5 15.5 ± 7.7 0.628
 HDL (mg/dL) 57.9 ± 11.4 58.1 ± 11.9 57.9 ± 11.3 0.821
 Cholesterol (mg/dL) 162.3 ± 27.3 162.8 ± 29.4 162.2 ± 26.9 0.777
 TG (mg/dL) 78.2 ± 41.2 80.1 ± 44.8 77.9 ± 40.4 0.490
 GGT (U/L) 15.2 ± 10.3 16.5 ± 14.3 14.9 ± 9.4 0.063
NAFLD, n (%) 167 (13.8) 35 (17.8) 132 (13.0) 0.078
  1. Abbreviation: ALT aspartate aminotransferase, AST alanine aminotransferase, NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, BW body weight, BMI basal metabolic index, BP blood pressure, GGT gamma-glutamyl aminotransferase, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, VLDL very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides
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