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Table 3 Primary and secondary themes relating to sports betting in major Australian newspapers

From: A comparative content analysis of media reporting of sports betting in Australia: lessons for public health media advocacy approaches

Theme Time Period One + Time Period Two Totals
N = 241 (%)a
Time Period One: Dec 1 2012–30 June 2013
N = 114 (%)a
Time Period Two: Sept 1 2015–31 May 2016
N = 127 (%)a
p-value
Primary Theme
 Regulatory Reform 88 (37) 56 (49) 32 (25) <0.0001 **
 Marketing and Communication 70 (29) 33 (29) 37 (29) 0.975
 Sport Integrity 25 (10) 11 (10) 14 (11) 0.727
 Gambling Integrity 24 (10) 9 (8) 15 (12) 0.311
 Industry Finance and Partnerships 13 (5) 3 (3) 10 (8) 0.72
 Technology 12 (5) 0 (0) 12 (9) 0.001**
 Gambling Harm 5 (2) 2 (2) 3 (2) 1.000b
 Miscellaneous 4 (2) 0 (0) 4 (3) 0.124b
Secondary Theme
 Marketing and Communication 95 (39) 64 (56) 31 (24) <0.0001 **
 Regulatory Reform 52 (22) 18 (16) 34 (27) 0.039
 Gambling Integrity 35 (15) 12 (11) 23 (18) 0.095
 Sports Integrity 25 (10) 17 (15) 8 (6) 0.029
 Industry Finance and Partnerships 14 (6) 2 (2) 12 (9) 0.011
 Technology 10 (4) 0 (0) 10 (8) 0.002b
 Miscellaneous 6 (3) 1 (0.9) 5 (4) 0.217b
 Gambling Harm 4 (2) 0 (0) 4 (3) 0.124b
  1. **Statistically significant level < 0.0017
  2. aPercentages rounded to the nearest whole number
  3. bFisher’s exact test