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Table 4 The relationship between movement behaviours and growth

From: Systematic review of the relationships between combinations of movement behaviours and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years)

No. of studies Design Quality assessment No. of participants Absolute effect Quality
Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other
Mean baseline age of 3.3 years, and range of 2.5-3.5 years. Data were collected by cluster RCT (n = 1) and longitudinal study design (n = 1). Height and weight were objectively measured in both studies.
1 Cluster RCTa Serious risk of biasb No serious inconsistency No serious indirectnessc No serious imprecision None 83 SB + PA: The movement behaviour intervention was not associated with changes in height or weight [28]. MODERATEd
1 Longitudinale No serious risk of biasf No serious inconsistency Serious indirectnessg No serious imprecision None 248 SB + PA: Classification based on accelerometer variables did not predict weight percentile over 2 years [30]. VERY LOWh
  1. LPA light-intensity physical activity, MET metabolic equivalent, MVPA moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity, RCT randomized controlled trial, TPA total physical activity
  2. a Includes 1 cluster RCT [28]
  3. b Serious risk of bias. Age was not adjusted for in the analysis
  4. c No serious indirectness. The sedentary behaviour component of the intervention was minimal, which could have caused a risk for indirectness. However, the intervention did lead to significantly reduced sedentary time [28]. Additionally, while the intervention had no effect on MVPA, it did lead to increased TPA and LPA
  5. d Quality of evidence was downgraded from “high” to “moderate” due to serious risk of bias
  6. e Includes 1 longitudinal study [30]
  7. f No serious risk of bias. This sample was recruited using convenience recruiting
  8. g Serious indirectness. The method of classifying “less active” and “more active” groups did not create groups that significantly differed on sedentary time, but did differ on various components of LPA and MVPA (i.e., bouts per day, average minutes per bout, average MET score per bout, and total minutes per day)
  9. h Quality of evidence was downgraded from “low” to “very low” due to serious indirectness