|No of studies||Design||Quality Assessment||No of participants||Absolute effect||Quality|
|Risk of bias||Inconsistency||Indirectness||Imprecision||Other|
|Mean age ranged between 6 months and 4.5 years. Data were collected cross-sectionally and up to 4 years. Sleep duration was assessed by parent report. Sedentary behaviors (screen time) were assessed using time-use diaries or questionnaires.|
|1||Longitudinal studya||Serious risk of biasb||No serious inconsistency||No serious indirectness||No serious imprecision||None||2984||Sleep duration at 4 years of age was inversely associated with television viewing (β = −0.07, p = 0.003) and computer use (β = −0.04, p = 0.001) at 6 years of age .||VERY LOW|
|4||Cross-sectional studyc||Serious risk of biasd||No serious inconsistency||No serious indirectness||No serious imprecision||None||42,751||
Short sleep duration was associated with time spent watching TV (OR: 1.65, 95% CI 1.23–2.21 per additional hour/24 h) in boys. In girls, the association was not significant (p = 0.75) .|
Infants who were exposed to screen media in the evening at 12 months of age had a 28-min lower nighttime sleep duration on weekdays. Moreover, infants who were exposed to screen media in the evening at age 6 months and 12 months had shorter 12-month nighttime sleep duration compared with those who were not exposed to screen media after 7 pm at both ages .
Watching more than an hour of TV in the evening was associated with short sleep duration (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.26–2.84). However, the association was not significant with watching more than an hour of TV in the morning (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.80–1.58) .
Short sleep duration was associated with longer hours spent watching television (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.26–2.90 for ≥4 h/day) and playing computer games (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.18–2.23 for ≥2 h/day) compared to not watching/playing .