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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and laboratory results of participants

From: Is vegetarian diet associated with a lower risk of breast cancer in Taiwanese women?

  Total (N = 469) Breast cancer (N = 233) Control (N = 236)  
Variable Range Mean ± SD Range Mean ± SD Range Mean ± SD P value
Age (years) 28–83 55.4 ± 9.7 28–83 55.9 ± 10.4 29–80 54.9 ± 9 0.252
BMI (kg/m2) 15.98–38.34 23.65 ± 3.73 16.21–38.34 24.32 ± 3.92 15.98–36.51 22.98 ± 3.42 <0.001
Education        0.153
 Junior high school or lower 198 (42.2)   106 (45.5)   92 (39.0)  
 Senior high school or higher 271 (57.8)   127 (54.5)   144 (61.0)  
Menarche        0.117
 11–14 years old   305 (65.0)   160 (68.7)   145 (61.4)  
 15 years old   89 (19.0)   35 (15.0)   54 (22.9)  
  ≥ 16 years old   75 (16.0)   38 (16.3)   37 (15.7)  
Primiparity        0.011
  ≤ 30 years 348 (74.2)   160 (68.7)   188 (79.7)  
  > 30 years 59 (12.6)   39 (16.7)   20 (8.5)  
 never 62 (13.2)   34 (14.6)   28 (11.9)  
Menopause       <0.001
 Not yet 135 (28.9)   79 (34.1)   56 (23.7)  
  < 45 years old 71 (15.2)   32 (13.8)   39 (16.5)  
 45–55 years old 247 (52.8)   111 (47.8)   136 (57.6)  
  ≥ 55 years old 15 (3.2)   10 (4.3)   5 (2.1)  
Family history (BC)       0.390
 Present 41 (8.7)   23 (9.9)   18 (7.6)  
 Absent 428 (91.3)   210 (90.1)   218 (92.4)  
Oral contraceptive       0.604
 Current user 18 (3.8)   7 (3.0)   11 (4.7)  
 Prior user 97 (20.7)   47 (20.2)   50 (21.2)  
 Never 354 (75.5)   179 (76.8)   175 (74.1)  
Hormone replacement therapy       0.503
 Never 386 (82.3)   189 (81.1)   197 (83.5)  
 Ever 83 (17.7)   44 (18.8)   39 (16.5)  
Regular exercise       0.358
 Yes 191 (40.7)   90 (38.6)   101 (42.8)  
 No 278 (59.3)   143 (61.4)   135 (57.2)  
Exercise frequency       0.009
 0 275 (58.6)   142 (60.9)   133 (56.4)  
 0.5–4/week 115 (24.5)   44 (18.9)   71 (30.1)  
  > 4.1/week 79 (16.8)   47 (20.2)   32 (13.6)  
Exercise time       0.884
  ≤ 30 min 363 (77.4)   181 (77.7)   182 (77.1)  
  > 30 min 106 (22.6)   52 (23.3)   54 (22.0)  
Vegetarian (≥12 months)       0.002
 yes 195 (41.6)   80 (34.3)   115 (48.7)  
 no 274 (58.4)   153 (65.7)   121 (51.3)  
Daily isoflavones intakea 0–285 21.8 ± 21.3 0–88.5 17.2 ± 16 0–285 26.3 ± 24.7 <0.001
Serum level
 Albumin level (g/dL) 2.4–5.0 3.99 ± 0.34 2.4–4.8 3.85 ± 0.36 3.1–5.0 4.12 ± 0.27 0.004
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 21–681 106.1 ± 62.8 21–438 107.5 ± 62.6 25–681 104.7 ± 63.1 0.628
 Estradiol (pg/ml) 2.5–787 55.8 ± 92.6 2.5–693 50.3 ± 74.6 5.2–786.4 61.2 ± 107.4 0.205
  1. BMI body mass index (=BW/BH2, BW body weight; BH body height); SD standard deviation; a mg of isoflavones (aglucon equivalents) / 100 g of wet weight