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Table 3 Prevalence and Risk ratios of depressive symptoms according to the presence of multiple chronic diseases

From: The relationship between multiple chronic diseases and depressive symptoms among middle-aged and elderly populations: results of a 2009 korean community health survey of 156,747 participants

  40-59 yr ≥60 yr
(No. participants = 88,749) (No. participants = 67,998)
Prevalence (%) Adjusted 95% CLb CES-D-Kc Prevalence (%) Adjusted 95% CLb CES-D-Kc
risk ratioa Median IQR p d risk ratioa Median IQR p d
No. of diseases 0 7.67    3 0-7 <0.001 10.78    4 1-9 <0.001
1 10.7 1.429 1.35-1.51 3 1-8 14.22 1.222 1.15-1.30 4 1-10
2 14.95 1.879 1.74-2.03 4 1-11 18.03 1.468 1.37-1.57 6 2-12
3 20.88 2.602 2.32-2.92 5 2-13 24.12 1.93 1.80-2.07 7 3-15
4 or more 33.72 4.465 3.81-5.23 8 3-19 32.09 2.643 2.45-2.85 10 4-19
Multiple chronic diseases No 8.49    3 0-7 <0.001 12.65    4 1-9 <0.001
Yes 17.8 1.939 1.82-2.06 5 1-12 22.75 1.620 1.55-1.69 7 2-14
  1. aMultivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age (continuous variable), gender, marital status, employment, occupational categories, education, income and residence location
  2. b95% CL; 95% confidence limits
  3. cCES-D-K; Korean version of Center for epidemiological studies depression
  4. dP-values were obtained by Student’s t-test or ANOVA using CES-D-K score transformed by natural logarithm
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