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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the study population

From: The relationship between multiple chronic diseases and depressive symptoms among middle-aged and elderly populations: results of a 2009 korean community health survey of 156,747 participants

  40-59 yr ≥60 yr p a
  (No. participants = 88,749) (No. participants = 67,998)
  n % n %  
Gender      
 Men 42,961 48.41 28,734 42.26 <0.001
 Women 45,788 51.59 39,264 57.74  
Marital status      
 With spouse 72,945 82.19 43,552 64.05 <0.001
 Separated 4459 5.02 1746 2.57  
 Divorced 4698 5.29 1081 1.59  
 Widowed 3474 3.91 21,286 31.3  
 Never married 3173 3.58 333 0.49  
Employment      
 No 4527 5.1 22,956 33.76 <0.001
 Yes 84,170 94.84 45,029 66.22  
 Unknown 52 0.06 13 0.02  
Occupational categories      
 Manual 31,572 35.57 21,798 32.06 <0.001
 Non-manual 33,635 37.9 5012 7.37  
 Unemployed/otherb 23,490 26.47 41,175 60.55  
 Unknown 52 0.06 13 0.02  
Education      
 College or more 19,617 22.1 3384 4.98 <0.001
 High school 36,308 40.91 8389 12.34  
 Middle school 16,603 18.71 8492 12.49  
 Elementary School 13,192 14.86 23,112 33.99  
 Non-educated 3029 3.41 24,621 36.21  
Income (Korean 10,000won/month)c
 4.01 million won or more 17,966 20.24 4418 6.5 <0.001
 4 million won or less 11,184 12.6 3097 4.55  
 3 million won or less 20,672 23.29 7242 10.65  
 2 million won or less 21,260 23.96 13,571 19.96  
 1 million won or less 14,562 16.41 37,459 55.09  
 Unknown 3105 3.5 2211 3.25  
Residence locationd
 County 27,708 31.22 32,409 47.66 <0.001
 Small city 26,235 29.56 17,741 26.09  
 Middle city 9543 10.75 4137 6.08  
 Metropolitan 25,263 28.47 13,711 20.16  
No. of chronic diseases
 0 57,127 64.37 16,685 24.54 <0.001
 1 21,076 23.75 19,853 29.2  
 2 7351 8.28 15,520 22.82  
 3 2332 2.63 9505 13.98  
4  or more 863 0.97 6435 9.46  
Multiple chronic diseases
 No (chronic diseases 0–1) 78,203 88.12 36,538 53.73 <0.001
 Yes (chronic diseases ≥2) 10,546 11.88 31,460 46.27  
Depressive symptoms
 No (CES-D-Ke 0–15) 80,234 90.41 56,219 82.68 <0.001
 Yes (CES-D-Ke ≥ 16) 8515 9.59 11,779 17.32  
 CES-D-K (median, IQR) 3 1-3 5 2-12 <0.001
Depression diagnosed by physicians
 No 86,291 97.23 65,567 96.42 <0.001
 Yes 2458 2.77 2431 3.58  
  1. aP-values were obtained using the chi-square or Mann Whitney U test with the CES-D-K scores
  2. bIncluding housewives
  3. cOne thousand won roughly equals one US dollar
  4. dCounty; population less than 50,000
  5. Small city; population more than 50,000
  6. Middle city; population more than 500,000
  7. Metropolitan; population more than 1,000,000
  8. eCES-D-K; Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression
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