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Table 1 Bivariate associations with Physical Activity (PA)

From: Perceived neighborhood safety related to physical activity but not recreational screen-based sedentary behavior in adolescents

  Total sample
N = 474,768 (n = 4020)
CI = 405,872 - 543,663
High PA
N = 213,443 (n = 1623)
CI = 177,470 – 249,415
Low PA
N = 261,324 (n = 2397)
CI = 222,873 – 299,776
χ 2
Demographic variables    
Sex
 Female 50.5% (48.0% – 52.9%) 40.7% (38.0% – 43.6%) 58.4% (55.0% – 61.8%) 80.44***
 Male 49.5% (47.1%–52.0%) 59.3% (56.4%– 62.0%) 41.6% (38.2% – 45.0%)  
Age
  < 16 years 40.5% (33.6% – 47.8%) 43.3% (35.5% – 51.4%) 38.2% (31.6% – 45.4%) 4.88*
  ≥ 16 years 59.5% (52.2% – 66.4%) 56.7% (48.6% – 64.5%) 61.8% (54.6% – 68.4%)  
Race
 Non–Hispanic white 70.9% (63.5% – 77.3%) 75.7% (69.1% – 81.2%) 67.0% (58.5% – 74.5%) 17.77***
 Non–Hispanic black 15.2% (10.6% – 21.4%) 12.3% (8.2% – 17.9%) 17.6% (12.2% – 24.7%) 9.61**
 Hispanic 8.4% (6.2% – 11.3%) 6.9% (4.9% – 9.6%) 9.6% (7.1% – 13.0%) 11.68***
 Asian 2.4% (1.8% – 3.2%) 1.6% (1.0% –2.6%) 3.0% (2.2% – 4.1%) 7.25**
 Other 3.1% (2.6% – 3.8%) 3.5% (2.6% – 4.7%) 2.8% (2.2% – 3.5%) 1.54
Academic achievement
 Earned mostly A’s & B’s 82.8% (79.3% – 85.7%) 85.2% (81.2%– 88.5%) 80.8% (77.0% – 84.1%) 6.34*
Overweight/obese 29.5% (27.2% – 32.0%) 25.3% (22.6% – 28.2%) 33.1% (30.3% – 36.0%) 23.62***
Environmental level variables
Dataset (PA State vs. Philadelphia City)
 Philadelphia City 5.0% (3.9% – 6.3%) 3.6% (2.8% – 4.6%) 6.1% (4.7% – 7.8%) 34.26***
Perceived safety
 Rarely/never feel safe 7.6% (6.1% – 9.4%) 5.9% (4.6% – 7.7%) 8.9% (7.1% – 11.1%) 19.35***
Health related variables
  ≥ 4 h screen time/day 51.7% (48.7% – 54.6%) 45.1% (40.8% – 49.3%) 57.1% (53.3% – 60.8%) 19.34***
  ≥ 1 day PE/week 58.6% (50.7% – 66.1%) 65.3% (56.9% – 72.7%) 53.2% (45.0% – 61.2%) 23.20***
  ≥ 1 sports teams 60.9% (57.9% – 63.8%) 79.4% (76.1% – 82.4%) 45.8% (42.6% – 49.0%) 258.78***
  ≥ 8 h sleep/night 25.6% (23.4% – 27.9%) 28.8% (25.7% – 32.0%) 23.1% (20.6% – 25.7%) 9.78**
 Current alcohol use 30.6% (27.7% – 33.7%) 31.0% (27.4% – 34.9%) 30.3% (26.7% – 34.1%) 0.12
 Current cigarette use 11.9% (9.7% – 14.6%) 11.8% (9.1% – 15.2%) 12.6% (9.4% – 15.3%) 0.02
  ≥ 2 servings fruit/day 28.9% (26.5% – 31.3%) 36.3% (33.0% – 39.7%) 22.8% (20.6% – 25.2%) 84.88***
  ≥ 3 servings veg/day 10.5% (8.8% – 12.4%) 15.2% (12.2% – 18.7%) 6.6% (5.2% – 8.4%) 31.43***
  1. The association between each dichotomous independent variable and the dichotomous outcomes of physical activity (column 3 & 4) was examined using chi–square test of independence
  2. *p ≤ .05 **p ≤ .01 ***p ≤ .001