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Table 3 Description of variables, purpose of measure, instruments, and when data will be collected

From: Early food for future health: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an eHealth intervention aiming to promote healthy food habits from early childhood

Level Purpose of measure Variable Measure Instrument When to collect
Infant SO Antropo-metric measures Weight and height Self-reported, but measured at the scheduled visits to the health centre At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, IC Food intake
Food variance
Daily food intake, breastfeeding, introduction of solid food FFQ based on FFQ from Norwegian nationwide diet surveys among 6 and 12 months old children [13, 56] and the Norwegian MoBa-study [51] At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, IC Child eating behaviour Report of satiety-responsiveness, fussiness, food enjoyment, emotional over−/under eating BEBQ [57, 58]
CEBQ [59, 60]
CEBQ
At 6 months
At 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SC Infant tempera-ment Infant difficultness as perceived by caregiver Fussy/difficult subscale of the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire [61, 62] At 6 and 12 months
SO, IC Food preferences Rating of child’s preferences for listed food and beverages Food preferences questionnaire developed for this study’s purpose (At 24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, SC Child behaviour Internalizing and externalizing behaviours Child Behaviour CheckList (CBCL) [6365] (At 24 and 48 monthsa)
Parent SC Antropo-metric measures Weight and height of parent Self-reported At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SC Food intake
Food variance
Frequency of intake of indicator foods for healthy and unhealthy food. FFQ developed for this study’s purpose, based on the Norwegian MoBa-study [51] At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, IC Food neophobia Ratings of the parent’s courage to taste new foods and flavours The food neophobia scale [66] At 6 months
SC Parental eating behaviour Report of satiety-responsiveness, fussiness, food enjoyment, emotional over−/under eating Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire [67]
(AEBQ)
At 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, IC Feeding style and feeding practices Feeding attitudes, practices, perceptions/concern regarding weight, under/over-eating, infant cues Infant Feeding Questionnaire [68, 69]
Child Feeding Questionnaire [70]
At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, IC Feeding self efficacy Parental self- efficacy in feeding situations Five items from the Feeding Self-Efficacy Questionnaire [71, 72] At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SO, IC Parenting style Parental discipline, routine, anxiety, nurturance and involvement Infancy Parenting Styles Questionnaire [73] At 6 and 12 months
SO, IC Parenting style Control-oriented parenting The Parental Locus of Control Scale (PLOC), short version [74, 75] At 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
SC Parental personality traits and mental health General self-efficacy
Negative Affectivity
Short versions of:
General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) [76, 77]
The (Hopkins) Symptoms Checklist (SCL-8) [76, 78, 79]
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) [80, 81]
At 6 and 12 months
(24 and 48 monthsa)
At 12 months
  1. SO Study outcome, IC Intervention component, SC Study covariate, FFQ Food frequency questionnaire, BEBQ Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, CEBQ Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
  2. aPossible follow-up studies, not yet planned