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Table 3 Mediation effect of home setting factors on association between parental education and preschoolers’ screen timea b

From: The mediating role of the home environment in relation to parental educational level and preschool children’s screen time: a cross-sectional study

Potential Mediator (N)b Parental Educational Level Direct Effect β (95% CI) a-pathc β (95% CI) b-pathd β (95% CI) Indirect Effect β (95% CI)*
Access to screens at home (N = 777) Low 14.42 (5.14–23.71) −0.06 (−0.29–0.16) 4.32 (0.88–7.76) −0.27 (−1.28–0.74)
Middle 7.10 (−1.08–15.27) −0.00 (−0.21–0.20) 0.00 (−0.89–0.88)
High (reference)     
Descriptive norms for children’s screen time (N = 788) Low 9.36 (0.52–18.20) 9.72 (2.30–17.13) 0.48 (0.37–0.58) 4.61 (1.03–8.19)
Middle 1.25 (−6.50–9.00) 11.84 (5.42–18.26) 5.62 (2.25–8.99)
High (reference)     
Satisfaction of children’s screen time (N = 789) Low 15.27 (6.16–24.37) 0.07 (−0.13–0.28) −12.66 (−16.23 – −9.08) −0.94 (−3.55–1.67)
Middle 7.15 (−0.85–15.15) 0.01 (−0.16–0.19) −0.18 (−2.39–2.03)
High (reference)     
Rules for limiting children’s screen time (N = 784) Low 14.22 (4.93–23.50) 0.01 (−0.08–0.10) 9.27 (0.89–17.66) 0.12 (−0.70–0.95)
Middle 7.20 (−1.06–15.45) −0.01 (−0.08–0.10) −0.08 (−0.83–0.67)
High (reference)     
Parental use of screens in front of children (N = 789) Low 9.36 (0.50–18.22) 0.27 (0.12–0.42) 16.95 (12.44–21.45) 4.61 (1.90–7.32)
Middle 3.75 (−4.24–10.45) 0.19 (0.05–0.33) 3.28 (0.80–5.77)
High (reference)     
Parental importance for limiting children’s screen time (N = 786) Low 10.95 (1.72–20.19) −0.11 (−0.21 – −0.01) −19.31 (−26.41 – −12.20) 3.01 (0.65–5.48)
Middle 4.82 (−3.23–12.88) −0.16 (−0.27 – −0.05) 2.17 (−0.04–4.31)
High (reference)     
Parental attitude toward societal pressures for screen time (N = 788) Low 12.44 (3.15–21.73) 0.34 (0.19–0.49) 5.85 (1.53–10.16) 1.99 (0.34–3.63)
Middle 5.92 (−2.43–14.27) 0.15 (0.01–0.29) 0.89 (−0.15–1.93)
High (reference)     
Parental self-efficacy for limiting children’s screen time (N = 789) Low 15.95 (6.87–25.03) −0.12 (−0.26–0.03) 16.73 (11.93–21.54) −1.99 (−4.46–0.48)
Middle 7.47 (−0.54–15.47) −0.01 (−0.14–0.12) −0.17 (−2.39–2.05)
High (reference)     
  1. aSingle-mediator models
  2. bAdjusted for children’s sex, children’s age, and season
  3. cThe associations between parental education and potential mediator
  4. dThe associations between potential mediator and children’s screen time adjusted with parental education
  5. *Indirect effects in bold are statistically significant at p-level <0.05