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Table 3 Associations between maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s low communication skills at 3 and 5 years

From: Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa)

  Risk for low communication skills
At 3 years At 5 years
N total/N with low skills (%) OR 95% CI N total/N with low skills (%) OR 95% CI
Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy
Crude model
 No use 4428/60 (1.4%) Ref.   1177/10 (0.9%) Ref.  
 Any use 40,961/464 (1.1%) 0.83 0.64, 1.09 16,133/85 (0.5%) 0.62 0.32, 1.19
 Low use 17,690/215 (1.2%) 0.90 0.67, 1.19 6817/37 (0.5%) 0.64 0.32. 1.28
 Medium use 21,292/237 (1.1%) 0.82 0.62, 1.09 8527/45 (0.5%) 0.62 0.31, 1.23
 High use 1979/12 (0.6%) 0.44 0.24, 0.83 789/3 (0.4%) 0.45 0.12, 1.62
p- for trend   0.018   0.234
Adjusted model 1
 No use 4428/60 (1.4%) Ref.   1177/10 (0.9%) Ref.  
 Any use 40,961/464 (1.1%) 1.04 0.78, 1.38 16,133/85 (0.5%) 0.69 0.35, 1.36
 Low use 17,690/215 (1.2%) 1.03 0.77, 1.39 6817/37 (0.5%) 0.69 0.34, 1.41
 Medium use 21,292/237 (1.1%) 1.07 0.78, 1.45 8527/45 (0.5%) 0.70 0.34, 1.43
 High use 1979/12 (0.6%) 0.62 0.33, 1.17 789/3 (0.4%) 0.56 0.15, 2.09
p- for trend   0.724   0.438
Adjusted model 2
 No use 375/4 (1.1%) Ref.   311/4 (1.3%) Ref.  
 Any use 10,510/86 (0.8%) 0.93 0.33, 2.59 8642/45 (0.5%) 0.65 0.22, 1.87
 Low use 3688/29 (0.8%) 0.85 0.29, 2.45 3010/18 (0.6%) 0.65 0.21, 1.96
 Medium use 6220/54 (0.9%) 1.02 0.36, 2.88 5131/26 (0.5%) 0.67 0.22, 2.00
 High use 602/3 (0.5%) 0.65 0.14, 2.98 501/1 (0.2%) 0.33 0.04, 3.10
p- for trend   0.847   0.506
  1. Bold fonts indicate statistical significant results, that are either confidence intervals that do not include 1 or p-for trend<0.05
  2. N (%) represent the number (and percentages) of children with low communication skills (score < 40 at 3 years and score ≤ 30 at 5 years) in each category of cell phone use. Total number of included mother-child pairs at 3 years are: n = 45,389 in crude and adjusted model 1 and n = 10,885 in adjusted model 2. Total number of included mother-child pairs at 5 years are: n = 17,310 in crude and adjusted model 1and n = 8953 in adjusted model 2
  3. Adjusted model 1 includes parity, maternal age and education and year of delivery
  4. Adjusted model 2 includes the variables of adjusted model 1 and maternal extrovert personality score in tertiles (low/average/high)