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Table 4 Validation characteristics of Verbal Autopsy (VA) procedures for 10 leading site-specific cancer deaths in the study sample

From: Validation of verbal autopsy: determination of cause of deaths in Malaysia 2013

Cause of death Medical record (MR) diagnoses Verbal autopsy (VA) diagnoses Validation scores for VA
Sensitivity PPV CSMF change in VA (%)a
Trachea, bronchus and lung cancer 58 60 75.9 73.3 3.4
Cancer of colon, rectum and anus 28 37 71.4 54.1 32.1
Breast cancer 34 36 94.1 88.9 5.9
Liver cancer 25 22 68.0 77.3 −12.0
Leukaemia 20 16 60.0 75.0 −20.0
Stomach cancer 8 14 75.0 42.9 75.0
Lip, oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer 8 11 75.0 54.5 37.5
Cervix cancer 6 8 83.3 62.5 33.3
Brain cancer 12 8 58.3 87.5 −33.3
Pancreatic cancer 8 6 62.5 83.3 −25.0
  1. aindicates the change in cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF) from VA
  2. Positive change indicates over diagnosis by VA; Negative change indicates under diagnosis by VA
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