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Table 2 Validation characteristics of Verbal Autopsy (VA) procedures for 15 leading causes of hospital deaths

From: Validation of verbal autopsy: determination of cause of deaths in Malaysia 2013

Cause of deaths Medical Record (MR) diagnosis Verbal Autopsy (VA) diagnosis Validation scores for VA
Sensitivity (95% CI) PPV CSMF changes in VA (%)a
Ischaemic heart diseases 311 316 0.65 (0.60, 0.71) 0.64 1.6
Cerebrovascular diseases 282 236 0.60 (0.55, 0.66) 0.72 −16.3
Transport accidents 193 206 0.92 (0.88, 0.96) 0.86 6.7
Pneumonia 182 178 0.37 (0.30, 0.44) 0.38 −2.2
Diabetes mellitus 91 102 0.36 (0.26,0.46) 0.32 12.1
Chronic lower respiratory diseases 73 99 0.48 (0.36, 0.59) 0.35 35.6
Other heart diseases 48 65 0.21 (0.09, 0.32) 0.15 35.4
Renal failure 80 64 0.35 (0.25, 0.45) 0.44 −20.0
Other diseases of the digestive system 58 42 0.33 (0.21, 0.45) 0.73 −27.6
Other malignant neoplasms 60 41 0.38 (0.26.0.51) 0.45 −31.7
Respiratory tuberculosis 30 40 0.47 (0.29, 0.65) 0.56 33.3
Cancer of colon, rectum and anus 28 37 0.71 (0.55, 0.88) 0.35 32.1
Breast cancer 34 36 0.94 (0.86, 1.00) 0.54 5.9
Diseases of the liver 25 36 0.40 (0.21, 0.59) 0.89 44.0
All other causes 677 674    
Total deaths 2172 2172    
  1. aindicates the change in cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF) from VA
  2. Positive change indicates over diagnosis by VA; Negative change indicates under diagnosis by VA
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