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Table 1 Factors associated with HBsAg seropositivity in Madagascar, 2011–2013

From: Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and infrastructure for its diagnosis in Madagascar: implication for the WHO’s elimination strategy

  N HBsAg- positive, n (weighted %) Crude odds ratios Odds ratios adjusted for age and sex
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age (years)     0.5*   0.4*
 18–24 380 38 (7.1) 1.00   1.00  
 25–34 475 41 (7.4) 1.05 (0.50–2.22)   1.08 (0.50–2.34)  
 35–44 379 26 (7.5) 1.06 (0.58–1.97)   1.09 (0.59–2.01)  
 ≥ 45 542 36 (6.0) 0.84 (0.42–1.65)   0.82 (0.42–1.61)  
Gender     0.3   0.3
 Female 879 58 (5.8) 1.00   1.00  
 Male 899 83 (8.1) 1.42 (0.75–2.68)   1.43 (0.76–2.67)  
Education     0.7*   0.4*
 Illiterate 233 18 (5.5) 1.00   1.00  
 Primary 668 62 (8.6) 1.62 (0.81–3.21)   1.62 (0.80–3.25)  
 Secondary 794 49 (5.2) 0.96 (0.47–1.96)   0.91 (0.44–1.88)  
 University 81 12 (13.5) 2.70 (1.05–6.97)   2.48 (0.93–6.61)  
SES     0.03*   0.03*
 Low 935 81 (9.4) 1.00   1.00  
 Middle 753 57 (6.6) 0.69 (0.41–1.15)   0.70 (0.42–1.17)  
 High 90 3 (3.8) 0.38 (0.13–1.10)   0.39 (0.14–1.11)  
Area     0.04*   0.04*
 Urban 482 26 (6.0) 1.00   1.00  
 Semi-urban 516 39 (7.2) 1.22 (0.70–2.12)   1.23 (0.71–2.11)  
 Rural 780 76 (9.8) 1.71 (1.11–2.64)   1.69 (1.09–2.60)  
  1. *The p-value was derived from a test for trends
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