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Table 1 Mitigation measures with health effects. Household mitigation measures exerting an established and scientifically proven health co-benefit on the individual, together with the strength and direction of the effect

From: Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol

Mitigation measure Strength and direction of health effect (in QALYs) Explanation
H.1.1 Insulate your roof/ attic. <1 month
+
Reduced cold-related health problems (including improved mental well-being), and lung and heart disease
H.1.2 Insulate your walls. <1 month
+
Reduced cold-related health problems (including improved mental well-being), and lung and heart disease
H.1.3 Improve your windows (increase glazing of your windows). <1 month
+
Reduced cold-related health problems (including improved mental well-being), and lung and heart disease
H.2.3 Lower in-house temperature by 3 °C <1 month
-
Some increase in risk of cold-related health problems if winter indoor temperatures fall below around 18 °C
F.2.1 Eat 30% more vegetarian food (less meat and fish). > 3 months
+++
Reduced risk of heart disease and some cancers
F.2.2 Eat 60% more vegetarian food (less meat and fish). > 3 months
+++
Reduced risk of heart disease and some cancers
F.2.3 Become a vegetarian (stop eating meat and fish). > 3 months
+++
Reduced risk of heart disease and some cancers
F.3.1Gradually give up on ready-made meals (e.g. frozen pizza, canned soups, frozen lasagne). 1–3 months
++
Reduced risk of stroke, heart disease and some cancers
M.1.1 Shift significantly (more than 30%) from car to public transport (bus, tramway, metro, train). 1–3 months
++
Reduced risk of heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, obesity and dementia;
Neg: Increased in risk of road injury
M.1.2 Shift to non-motorized modes of transport (walk, bike) instead of public transport. 1–3 months
++
Reduced risk of heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, obesity and dementia;
Neg: Increased in risk of road injury
M.2.2 Decrease your travels with cars public transport and other motorized vehicles by 30%. 1–3 months
++
Reduced risk of heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, obesity and dementia;
Neg: Increased in risk of road injury
M.2.3 Give up your car(s) and other motorized vehicle(s) 1–3 months
++
Reduced risk of heart disease, some cancers, diabetes, obesity and dementia
Neg: Increased in risk of road injury