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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: The 2016 HIGh Heels: Health effects And psychosexual BenefITS (HIGH HABITS) study: systematic review of reviews and additional primary studies

Part A – review articles
Authors Language of publication Review design Search date/year of last included publication Inclusion criteriab
 Barnish and Barnish, 2016 [21] English Systematic review July 2015 Full-text original research studies published in peer-reviewed journals; published in English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Dutch or Portuguese; able to be retrieved; providing data to associate high heel wear with at least one of osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal pain or hallux valgus verified by clinical diagnosis or assessment, or first- or second-party injury; assessing human participants without prior history of musculoskeletal conditions or other serious conditions likely to affect outcomes; using any quantitative epidemiological design
 Cowley et al., 2009 [25] English Non-systematic review 2007a Not stated: the research question was about the effect of high heels on female gait and posture
 Cronin, 2014 [22] English Non-systematic review 2012a Not stated: the research question was about how high heels affect female gait
 Murley et al., 2009 [24] English Systematic review 2007 Main outcome for muscle activity was EMG or muscle activity during walking or running; assessed changes in foot posture, orthoses or footwear; statistical testing was conducted; human participants without neurological disease; not a single case report or ‘n of 1 study’
 Riskowski et al., 2011 [26] English Non-systematic review 2010a Not stated: This is a wide-ranging review that covers both problematic effects of footwear on health and how footwear can be used as therapy
Russell, 2010 [27] English Non-systematic review June 2010 English-language publications about the relationship between high heels and lumbar lordosis
 Silva et al., 2013 [28] English (also available in Portuguese) Non-systematic review 2011 Articles published between 1980 and 2011, regardless of study design with participants partly or entirely females aged between 10 and 19; assessing posture of spine and lower limbs, location of centre of gravity and effects of high heels on the adolescent musculoskeletal system. It is noted that 5 studies were added that did not fulfil the criteria
Part B – primary studies
Authors Language of publication Country Study design Participants Exposures Outcomes
 Guéguen, 2015 [20] English France Psychology experiment Random selection. Experiment 1: men aged 25–50. Experiment 2: men and women aged 25–50. Experiment 3: men and women aged 20–45. Experiment 4: men aged 20–28. Between one and four female confederates were used, mean age 19, height without heels 167–168 cm, weight 54-57 kg. Flat shoe vs medium (5 cm) heel vs high (9 cm) heel Participation in surveys, helping the confederate when she has dropped a glove and approaching her in a bar
 Guéguen and Stefan, 2015 [37] English France Psychology experiment Random selection. Experiment 1: men aged 18–35. Experiment 2: men and women aged 25–50. Experiment 3: male undergraduate students, mean age 20. Experiments 1 and 2: between one and four female confederates were used, mean age 19, height without heels 167-169 cm, weight 55-58 kg. Experiment 3: one 30 year old women was used as the target. Experiments 1 and 2: Flat shoe vs medium (5 cm) heel vs high (9 cm) heel. Experiment 3: Flat shoe vs high (9 cm) heel Smiling back, participation in a survey and attractiveness ratings
 Guéguen et al., 2014 [38] English France Psychology experiment Male and female undergraduate business students aged 18–22. One 20 year old woman was used as the target. Flat shoe vs high (9 cm) heel Attractiveness ratings
 Maarouf, 2015 [39] English Egypt Cross-sectional 3 groups: businesswomen, female ‘workers’ and female university students Heel height: high or not (no explicit cut-off) Self-rated attractiveness, by questionnaire
 Morris, 2013 [19] English UK Psychology experiment No specific inclusion criteria for raters. Walkers were an opportunity sample of young women who wore high heels at least weekly Flat shoe vs high heel (6 cm) Attractiveness index; correct gender identification
  1. Characteristics could not be tabulated in this way for case reports
  2. a last included publication (used where no search date is stated); b inclusion criteria for the whole review as published – it may be part of this review that is used for the current review of reviews; EMG Electromyography