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Table 2 Odds of HPV Vaccine initiation (Receipt of at Least One Dose) among of Teen Boys 13 to 17 Years of age for Individual-level individual-level and area-based measures: National Immunization Survey–Teen, 2012-2013

From: Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States

  HPV vaccine initiationa   
Characteristics UndadjustedbOR (95%CI) Individual-level only, (Model 1) AOR b,c(95% CI) Individual-level + ZCTA racial composition + ZCTA population density (Model 2), AOR b,c (95% CI) Individual-level + ZCTA poverty, + ZCTA population density (Model 3), AOR b, c, d (95% CI)
Individual-level variables
 Age
  13 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  14 1.14 (1.03, 1.26)* 1.30 (1.16, 1.46)** 1.30 (1.15, 1.46)** 1.30 (1.15, 1.46)**
  15 1.12 (1,01, 1.23)* 1.36 (1.21, 1.53)** 1.34 (1.19, 1.51)** 1.35 (1.20, 1.51)**
  16 1.18 (1.07, 1.31)* 1.40 (1.24, 1.58)** 1.40 (1.24, 1.58)** 1.40 (1.24, 1.58)**
  17 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.32 (1.17, 1.49)** 1.31 (1.16, 1.48)** 1.31 (1.16, 1.48)**
 Mother’s age, years
   < = 34 1.17 (1.10, 1.26)** 1.12 (1.03, 1.22)** 1.13 (1.04, 1.23)** 1.13 (1.04, 1.23)**
  35 TO 44 1.63 (1.46, 1.82)** 1.33 (1.16, 1.52)* 1.33 (1.16, 1.53)* 1.33 (1.16, 1.53)*
   > = 45 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Type of insurance coverage insurance
  No insurance 1.26 (1.11, 1.42)* 1.17 (0.97, 1.43) 1.15 (0.94, 1.40) 1.16 (0.99, 1.36)
  Employer or union Ref Ref Ref Ref
  SCHIP or Medicaid 2.04 (1.89, 2.20)** 1.53 (1.36, 1.71)** 1.53 (1.37, 1.71)** 1.54 (1.38, 1.73)**
  IHS, military, other 1.43 (1.29, 1.58)** 1.38 (1.22, 1.56)** 1.37 (1.21, 1.55)** 1.38 (1.22, 1.56)**
 Mother’s education, years
   < 12 years 1.90 (1.73, 2.09)** 1.25 (1.09, 1.44)* 1.23 (1.07, 1.42)* 1.25 (1.09, 1.44)*
  12 years 1.13 (1.04, 1.22)* 0.83 (0.74, 0.93)* 0.84 (0.75, 0.94)* 0.84 (0.75, 0.94)*
   > 12 years, non-college graduate 0.84 (0.77,0.92)** 0.66 (0.60, 0.74)** 0.67 (0.60, 0.74)** 0.67 (0.60, 0.74)**
  College graduate Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Poverty status
  Above poverty, >$75,000 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Above poverty, ≤$75,000 1.17 (1.08, 1.27)** 0.99 (0.89, 1.10) 1.00 (0.90, 1.12) 0.10 (0.90, 1.11)
  Below poverty 2.13(1.96, 2.32)** 1.35 (1.17, 1.55)** 1.34 (1.16, 1.54)** 1.34 (1.17, 1.55)**
  Unknown poverty status 1.50 (1.27, 1.76)** 1.18 (0.97, 1.43) 1.15 (0.94, 1.40) 1.18 (0.97, 1.44)
 Race/ethnicity of teen
  Hispanic 2.42 (2.22, 2.63)** 2.14 (1.92, 2.39)** 1.88 (1.68, 2.12)** 2.02 (1.81, 2.26)**
  Non-Hispanic White Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Non-Hispanic Black 2.07 (1.88, 2.28)** 1.72 (1.53, 1.93)** 1.57 (1.38, 1.78)** 1.60 (1.41, 1.80)**
  Non-Hispanic other and multiple race 1.31 (1.16, 1.48)** 1.22 (1.06, 1.40)* 1.19 (1.03, 1.37)* 1.18 (1.02, 1.36)*
 Received provider recommendation to get HPV vaccine
  Yes 8.38 (7.77, 9.03)** 9.40 (8.66, 10.20)** 9.34 (8.61, 10.15)** 9.34 (8.60-10.14)**
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Don’t know 2.41 (2.36, 2.47)** 2.40 (2.09, 2.76)** 2.39 (2.08, 2.75)** 2.39 (2.07-2.75)**
ZCTA Area-based measures
 Racial composition (50% + of that groupin ZCTA)
  Hispanic 2.62 (2.35, 2.93) 1.41 (1.22, 1.63)** ---
  Mixed 1.47 (1.32, 1.62) 1.00 (0.88, 1.13) ---
  Non-Hispanic Black 1.76 (1.54, 2.02) 1.15 (0.97, 1.36) ---
  Non-Hispanic White Ref Ref Ref
  Non-Hispanic other 1.44 (1.03, 2.01) 0.96 (0.63, 1.44) ---
 ZCTA poverty (% below poverty) c
  0-4.99%, least impoverished Ref Ref
  5-9.9% 1.08 (0.97, 1.21) 1.04 (0.92, 1.19)
  10-19.9% 1.15 (1.03, 1.29)* 0.95 (0.83, 1.08)
  20 + %, poorest 1.77 (1.58, 1.98)** 1.13 (0.98, 1.31)
 ZCTA Population density quartiles (people per square mile)
  Q1 1-20 (lowest density) Ref Ref Ref
  Q2 21-71 1.12 (0.88, 1.41) 0.95 (0.74, 1.24) 0.97 (0.75 – 1.25)
  Q3 72-651 1.26 (1.02, 1.56)* 1.12 (0.88, 1.43) 1.14 (0.89 – 1.45)
  Q4 > 651 (highest density) 1.70 (1.37, 2.10)**   1.26 (0.99, 1.60) 1.27 (1.00 – 1.62)
  Q4 vs Q2 1.52 (1.35,1.72)**   1.33 (1.04-1.25)* 1.32 (1.14-1.52)*
  Q4 vs Q3 1.35 (1.25, 1.46)*   1.14 (1.25-1.04)* 1.12 (1.02-1.23)*
 ZCTA -Residence type
  1. Isolated Small Rural T Ref  
  2. Small Rural Town 1.13 (0.82, 1.57)  
  3. Large Rural Town 1.10 (0.82, 1.48)  
  4. Urban focused 1.71 (1.33, 2.21)**  
  1. Note CI confidence interval, HPV human papillomavirus, IHS Indian Health, SCHIP State Children’s Health Insurance Program, Ref Reference, AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. *P < .05; **P < .0001
  3. a initiation= > = 1 dose
  4. b Unadjusted odds and models 1-3 were weighted based on sampling weight and also included state random effects. The sample size was n = 19,188
  5. c Multivariable models 1-3 include all of the variables without dashes (—) and also include the variables, marital status, mother’s age, survey year, and teen’s current age in years and state random effects
  6. d Poverty status was based on the US Census poverty thresholds for 2012 and 2013