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Table 2 Univariate logistic regression producing crude odds ratios for associations between two survey questions and four socioeconomic indicators, by quartile

From: Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

  Nexposed (%) Nunexposed (%) OR 95% CI
Routine surveillance
Income level groups
 Low 6 (43) 8 (57) Ref. -
 Lower middle 25 (74) 9 (26) 3.7 (1.0–14)
 Upper middle 30 (91) 3 (9) 13 (3.0–77)
 High 38 (100) 0 (0)
Human Development Index groups
 Low 8 (38) 13 (62) Ref. -
 Lower middle 22 (79) 6 (21) 6.0 (1.8–23)
 Upper middle 32 (97) 1 (3) 52 (8.5–1020)
 High 37 (100) 0 (0)
Health expenditure groups
 Low 12 (48) 13 (52) Ref. -
 Lower middle 25 (83) 5 (17) 5.4 (1.7–20)
 Upper middle 26 (93) 2 (7) 14 (3.3–100)
 High 36 (100) 0 (0)
Physician density groups
 Low 7 (37) 12 (63) Ref. -
 Lower middle 24 (86) 4 (14) 10 (2.7–47)
 Upper middle 30 (88) 4 (12) 13 (3.4–59)
 High 38 (100) 0 (0)
Prevention in healthcare settings
Income level groups
 Low 5 (36) 9 (64) Ref. -
 Lower middle 17 (50) 17 (50) 1.8 (0.5–7.0)
 Upper middle 29 (88) 4 (12) 13 (3.1–67)
 High 33 (87) 5 (13) 12 (3.0–55)
Human Development Index groups
 Low 8 (38) 13 (62) Ref. -
 Lower middle 22 (79) 6 (21) 3.1 (0.9–11)
 Upper middle 32 (97) 1 (3) 7.4 (2.3–27)
 High 37 (100) 0 (0) 23 (5.7–120)
Health expenditure groups
 Low 7 (28) 18 (72) Ref. -
 Lower middle 22 (73) 8 (27) 7.0 (2.3–25)
 Upper middle 24 (86) 4 (14) 15 (4.3–69)
 High 31 (86) 5 (14) 16 (4.7–64)
Physician density groups
 Low 5 (26) 14 (74) Ref. -
 Lower middle 19 (68) 9 (32) 5.9 (1.7–23)
 Upper middle 28 (82) 6 (18) 13 (3.6–56)
 High 32 (84) 6 (16) 15 (4.2–63)